One of the most comprehensive definition which views industrial relations from the perspective of human relationships.Industrial relations are basically the interactions between employers, employees and the government, and the institutions and associations through which such interactions are mediated.
INTRODUCTION• "Industrial relations is an art, the art of living together for purposes of production. The parties while working together learn this art by acquiring the skills of adjustment.” J. Henry Richardson• Industrial relations are the relationships between employees and employers within the organizational settings. The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union.
• Industrial relations has three faces: science building, problem solving, and ethical.• In the science building phase, industrial relations is part of the social science. Here industrial relations is studied in context with labour economics, industrial sociology, labour and social history, human resource management, political science, law, and other areas.• In the problem solving phase, industrial relations seeks to design policies and institutions to help the employment relationship work better
• In the ethical phase, industrial relations contains strong normative principles about workers and the employment relationship, especially the rejection of treating labour as a commodity in favour of seeing workers as human beings in democratic communities entitled to human rights.
OBJECTIVES• To safeguard the interest of labour and management• To avoid industrial conflict or strike and develop harmonious relations• To raise productivity to a higher level• To establish and promote the growth of an industrial democracy• To improve the economic conditions of workers• Socialization of industries
• Vesting of a proprietary interest of the workers in the industries in which they are employed
INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE• Industrial Dispute means any dispute or differences between employers and employers or between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour of any person.
CAUSES FOR INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE• Economic • Non-Economic wages , bonus and victimization of allowances workers conditions for work, ill treatment by staff working hours, leave members and holidays without sympathetic strikes pay political factors unjust layoffs and indiscipline retrenchments.
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING• Collective bargaining is process of joint decision making and basically represents a democratic way of life in industry.• It is the process of negotiation between firm’s and workers’ representatives for the purpose of establishing mutually agreeable conditions of employment.• It is a technique adopted by two parties to reach an understanding acceptable to both through the process of discussion and negotiation.
• It is a collective process in which representatives of both the management and employees participate.• It is a continuous process which aims at establishing stable relationships between the parties involved.• It not only involves the bargaining agreement, but also involves the implementation of such an agreement.• It attempts in achieving discipline in the industry• It is a flexible approach, as the parties involved have to adopt a flexible attitude towards negotiations.
TRADE UNIONS• Trade union is an association either of employees or employers or of independent workers.• It is a relatively permanent formation of workers. It is not a temporary or casual combination of workers.• It is formed for securing certain economic, social benefits to members.
OBJECTIVES OF TRADE UNION• Wages salaries• Working conditions• Discipline• Personnel policies• Welfare benefits• Employee-employer relation• Negotiating machinery• Safeguarding organizational health and interest of the industry• Legal assistance
STRUCTURE OF TRADE UNIONS• Plant level Unions• Local Level federations• Regional level federations• National federations
WORKER PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT• Worker participation in management means giving scope to workers to influence the managerial decision making process at different levels by various forms in an organization. The principal forms of worker participation are information sharing, joint consultation and decision making, suggestion schemes etc.
SIGNIFICANCE OF WORKER PARTICIPATION• Higher productivity• Greater commitment• Reduced industrial unrest• Improved decisions• Human resource management• Reduced resistance to change
WHAT IS GRIEVANCE• Any discontent or dissatisfaction whether expressed or not , whether valid or not , arising out of anything connected with the company which an employee thinks , believes or even feels to be unfair or unjust.
CAUSES OF GRIEVANCE• Economic cause• Work environment• Supervision• Work group• Others such as promotion , fines , transfers , etc.
GRIEVANCES PROCEDURES• It is a formal communication between an employee and the management designed for the settlement of a grievance.• It may vary from organization to organization.• Consists of policies open door policy step ladder policy
GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL MACHINERY• Model for grievance procedure was drawn up in 16th session of Indian Labor Conference.• This model helps in creation of grievance machinery.• In this , management has to specify the persons in each department who are to be approached first and the departmental heads who are supposed to be approached in second step.
DISCIPLINARY ACTION• Purpose To motivate the employee to conform to the organization’s performance standards.• Disciplinary problems faced by HR managers attendance on the job behavior dishonesty off the job behavior
• Approaches to discipline employeesincorrect disciplinePreventive disciplinePositive discipline• Various disciplinary actionsVerbal warning,Written warming,SuspensionPay cutdemotion and dismissal.