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Discussions blooms

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  • 1. DELVING INTO ONLINE DISCUSSIONS TO DETERMINE WHAT WORKS BEST (OR BETTER) Dr. Brenda Bagwell, Faculty Development Trainer and Researcher Dr. Lori Poole, Program Coordinator and Research Initiative Coordinator
  • 2. CSU-Global Campus: Brief History •Nation’s first, independent, 100% online public university •Created to serve adult learners in completing their degrees •85% of faculty members have terminal degrees; all faculty members at the graduate level have a terminal degree
  • 3. Multi-Layered Courses • Readings (textbook, articles, online) • Interactive Lecture Pages •DISCUSSIONS • Mastery Exercises • Critical Thinking Assignments • Portfolio Paper
  • 4. Research Project Questions PHASE I: What is going on in our class discussions? How does instructor and student interaction affect the class discussions? PHASE II: Are we really working through the Bloom’s levels in our discussions as the courses are designed to?
  • 5. Online Class Discussions • CSU-Global Class Discussions: One discussion question per week about a topic related to the week’s learning outcomes in each 8-week long courses. • Outcomes: Outcomes refer to the learning goals at each level—at the program level, at the course level, and at the module level (referred to as Learning Outcomes).
  • 6. Research Project: Phase I • Determine if the type of overall discussion prompt impacts discussion postings and interactions • Categorize the types of discussion posts students are making • Evaluate how instructor replies impact discussion participation and course evaluations
  • 7. Research Project: Phase I Determine if the type of overall discussion prompt impacts discussion postings and interactions • Bullet point the discussion prompt • Class expectations • Instructor seeding • Extra discussion prompts for class • Summary discussion posting by instructor Jarosewich, T., Vargo, L., Salzman, J., Lenhart, L., Krosnick, L., Vance, K., & Roskos, K. (2010). Say What? The Quality of Discussion Board Postings in Online Professional Development. New Horizons in Education, 58(3), 118-132.
  • 8. Research Project: Phase I Categorize the types of discussion posts students are making • Categories: appreciation, questioning, prompting, expressing agreement/disagreement, elaboration, opinions • Students building community • Most reach module-level outcomes Lim, S., Cheung, W., & Hew, K. (2011). Critical Thinking in Asynchronous Online Discussion: An Investigation of Student Facilitation Techniques. New Horizons In Education, 59(1), 52-65.
  • 9. Research Project: Phase I Evaluate how instructor replies impact discussion participation and course evaluations • Categories: appreciation, questioning, prompting, restatement/re-link with challenge prompting, expressing agreement/disagreement, elaboration, explanations • Teaching methods/tips for discussions • Class discussion set-up tips and techniques • Outcomes: program level, course level, module level Lim, S., Cheung, W., & Hew, K. (2011). Critical Thinking in Asynchronous Online Discussion: An Investigation of Student Facilitation Techniques. New Horizons In Education, 59(1), 52-65.
  • 10. Online Class Discussions • Bloom’s is a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. • All CSU-Global courses employ Bloom’s verbs in all kinds of learning outcomes, with the intent for students to work through the levels.
  • 11. Bloom’s Taxonomy Remembering: can the student recall/remember information? Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts? Applying: can the student use the information in a new way? Analyzing: can the student distinguish between different parts? Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision? Creating: can the student create new product or point of view?
  • 12. Research Project: Phase II • What Bloom’s level are students reaching in initial posting? • Is there any relation to the cognitive level reached and the overall discussion prompt? • Does the cognitive level deepen throughout the term? Arend, B. (2009). Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions. Journal of Educators Online, 6(1).
  • 13. Research Project: Phase II • What Bloom’s level are students reaching in initial posting? • Is there any relation to the cognitive level reached and the overall discussion prompt? Initial Posting Overall Discussion Prompt M1 (34 participants; 176 postings) Remembering, Understanding (some moving toward Applying) Understanding, Applying M4 (34 participants; 177 postings) Applying, Analyzing Applying, Analyzing M8 (31 participants; 150 postings) Applying, Analyzing (some moving toward Evaluate) Analyzing, Evaluating
  • 14. Research Project: Phase II • Does the cognitive level deepen throughout the term? • Peaked in middle, but dropped in the end (for both students and instructors) • BUT…often the level noted in the course outline/development was not the level actually reached
  • 15. Research Project: Phase II Does student interaction lead to a higher level? When fellow students reply and/or ask questions is a deeper level attained? Do instructor prompts and questions lead to a higher level? When students are asked questions by the instructor is a deeper level attained? Does the cognitive level deepen throughout the term? • Average levels are remembering and analysis • Replies varied from student to student • Peaked in middle, but dropped in the end (for both students and instructors) • BUT…often the level noted in the course outline/development was not the level actually reached Arend, B. (2009). Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions. Journal of Educators Online, 6(1).
  • 16. Q&A Sharing Time!
  • 17. References Arend, B. (2009). Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions. Journal of Educators Online, 6(1). DeLoach, S. B., & Greenlaw, S. A. (2007). Effectively Moderating Electronic Discussions. Journal of Economic Education, 38(4), 419-434. Jarosewich, T., Vargo, L., Salzman, J., Lenhart, L., Krosnick, L., Vance, K., & Roskos, K. (2010). Say What? The Quality of Discussion Board Postings in Online Professional Development. New Horizons in Education, 58(3), 118-132. Lim, S., Cheung, W., & Hew, K. (2011). Critical Thinking in Asynchronous Online Discussion: An Investigation of Student Facilitation Techniques. New Horizons In Education, 59(1), 52-65. Matheson, R. R., Wilkinson, S. C., & Gilhooly, E. E. (2012). Promoting critical thinking and collaborative working through assessment: combining patchwork text and online discussion boards. Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 49(3), 257-267. doi:10.1080/14703297.2012.703023