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Chapter 10 A Strategy for Action to Slow and Stabilize Climate Change Sara Ferguson and Kevin Armstrong
Agenda 1. The Climate Convention 2. Stabilization of Emissions 3. The Montreal Protocol 4. The Kyoto Protocol 5. Forests 6...
<ul><li>The United Nations Framework convention on climate change was held in Rio De Janeiro June 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>...
2. Stabilization of Emissions <ul><li>by the year 2000 instead of reducing their emissions compared to 1990 the world as a...
3. The Montreal Protocol <ul><li>focused on reducing ozone depleting substances primarily CFCs. </li></ul><ul><li>To force...
4. The Kyoto Protocol <ul><li>Implemented to help control various greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitro...
The Kyoto Mechanisms  <ul><li>Joint Implementation-  allows industrialized countries to invest in reduction of emissions i...
5. Forests Forests represent large potential carbon sinks that can reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide if only left alone. A...
The Bali Roadmap  <ul><li>Is the latest in the series of climate change talks designed to unify the world on the issue of ...
6. Reduction in the Sources of Methane
Reduction in the Sources of Methane <ul><li>Methane contributes 15% to global warming, which doesn’t seem like much compar...
Reduction in the Sources of Methane <ul><li>There are 4 Main Sources for Methane dicussed in our book p.253: </li></ul><ul...
Reduction in the Sources of Methane <ul><li>We could dramatically cut the emissions of  Methane by recycling waste before ...
Reduction in the Sources of Methane <ul><ul><li>If we were to reduce our Methane emission by 60,000,000 tonnes pr annum (w...
6. Reduction in the Sources of Carbon Dioxide
Reduction in the Sources of Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>According to all of the SRES scenarios, CO2 will continue to rise becau...
Source: http://www.john-daly.com/dietze/Cmodcal4.gif
Reduction in the Sources of Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>According to all of the SRES scenarios, CO2 will continue to rise becau...
7.The Choice of Stabilization Level
The Choice of Stabilization Level <ul><li>In order to decide on the stabilization levels, we have to set limits and deadli...
The Choice of Stabilization Level <ul><li>We have learned how the amount and lifetime of CO2 is what makes it so dangerous...
The Choice of Stabilization Level <ul><li>How do we compare the costs, financially, to change our CO2 habits to the cost o...
The Choice of Stabilization Level <ul><li>The book states that when all the factors is considered, our ideal target range ...
 
8.  Realizing the Climate Convention Objective
Realizing the Climate Convention Objective <ul><li>The Climate Convention uses 4 main principles in determining its object...
Realizing the Climate Convention Objective <ul><li>The main obstacle is applying these main obstacles to all countries, de...
Source:  www.cru.uea.ac.uk   Climate Research Unit in Norwich
Realizing the Climate Convention Objective <ul><li>Contraction and Convergence Theory </li></ul><ul><li>-The idea addresse...
Possible Solutions? <ul><li>What is a plan that we can use to cap our emissions by a certain time, without compromising th...
9. Summary of the Action Required
Summary of the Action Required <ul><li>Revise Montreal Protocol to strengthen CFCs and CFC substitutes </li></ul><ul><li>R...
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Chapter 10 Presentation

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  1. 1. Chapter 10 A Strategy for Action to Slow and Stabilize Climate Change Sara Ferguson and Kevin Armstrong
  2. 2. Agenda 1. The Climate Convention 2. Stabilization of Emissions 3. The Montreal Protocol 4. The Kyoto Protocol 5. Forests 6. Reduction in the Sources of Methane 7.The Choice of Stabilization Level 8. Realizing the Climate Convention Objective 9. Summary of the Action Required
  3. 3. <ul><li>The United Nations Framework convention on climate change was held in Rio De Janeiro June 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>Signed by over 160 countries who promised to slow and stabilize climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Most developed (annex 1) countries promised to return their emissions to 1990 levels by 2000. </li></ul>1. The Climate Convention
  4. 4. 2. Stabilization of Emissions <ul><li>by the year 2000 instead of reducing their emissions compared to 1990 the world as a whole had increased CO 2 production by 10% </li></ul><ul><li>U.S + 17% </li></ul><ul><li>China +19% </li></ul><ul><li>India + 68% </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries + 37% </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3. The Montreal Protocol <ul><li>focused on reducing ozone depleting substances primarily CFCs. </li></ul><ul><li>To force the phase out of their manufacture in developed countries by 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>And in developing countries by 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>because of their long residence time in the atmosphere they will have an effect on the climate for many years. </li></ul><ul><li>CFCs were replaced by HCFCs (hdyroflourocarbons) which are still greenhouse gasses but do not deplete the ozone layer. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 4. The Kyoto Protocol <ul><li>Implemented to help control various greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydroflourocarbons perfluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride. </li></ul><ul><li>All countries involved now quantify their emissions of greenhouse gasses. </li></ul><ul><li>countries can offset their domestic emissions obligations against the absorption of emissions by sinks (forested areas) or by trading carbon credits with other countries. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Kyoto Mechanisms <ul><li>Joint Implementation- allows industrialized countries to invest in reduction of emissions in economies in transition countries then invest those credits in meeting their own goals. </li></ul><ul><li>The clean development mechanism- allows industrialized countries to invest in reducing emissions in developing countries and use those credits to meet their own goals. </li></ul><ul><li>emissions trading- countries can purchase assigned amount units of emissions from other industrialized countries. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 5. Forests Forests represent large potential carbon sinks that can reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide if only left alone. A typical square kilometer of forest contains 12,000 tones of carbon. Thanks to the kyoto protocol growing forests can now be a profitable venture for poor countries. Production forests that are cut every few years could sequester much more carbon than old growth forests because absorption slows when the trees reach maturity.
  9. 9. The Bali Roadmap <ul><li>Is the latest in the series of climate change talks designed to unify the world on the issue of what to do about anthropogenic climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think the U.S. and its allies has always been opposed to such climate conventions? </li></ul><ul><li>This summit redefined the differentiation between rich and poor countries and what each countries level of commitment is, particularly China. </li></ul><ul><li>How much do you think the richer countries should help poorer ones on the path to sustainability? </li></ul>
  10. 10. 6. Reduction in the Sources of Methane
  11. 11. Reduction in the Sources of Methane <ul><li>Methane contributes 15% to global warming, which doesn’t seem like much compared to Carbon Dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>We, as an anthropogenic cause of global warming, would only have to reduce our emissions by a small percent to make an impact and stabilize. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reduction in the Sources of Methane <ul><li>There are 4 Main Sources for Methane dicussed in our book p.253: </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass burning </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas Leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reduction in the Sources of Methane <ul><li>We could dramatically cut the emissions of Methane by recycling waste before it can make it to a landfill and improving the management of natural gas. This could ultimately be a money save to the petroleum industry as well. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reduction in the Sources of Methane <ul><ul><li>If we were to reduce our Methane emission by 60,000,000 tonnes pr annum (would stabilize in the atmosphere) would be equivalent to removing 1/3 a gigaton of carbon OR about 5% of the total greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,204.6 lb; equivalent to 0.9842 of an imperial ton </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 6. Reduction in the Sources of Carbon Dioxide
  16. 16. Reduction in the Sources of Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>According to all of the SRES scenarios, CO2 will continue to rise because of its lifespan in the atmosphere is longer and what we already have in the atmosphere will remain for up to 200 years. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Source: http://www.john-daly.com/dietze/Cmodcal4.gif
  18. 18. Reduction in the Sources of Carbon Dioxide <ul><li>According to all of the SRES scenarios, CO2 will continue to rise because of its lifespan in the atmosphere is longer and what we already have in the atmosphere will remain for up to 200 years. In order to eventually make concentrations lower we would have to lower our emissions to a fraction of today’s rate. This assumes that the CO2 sinks remain the same. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 7.The Choice of Stabilization Level
  20. 20. The Choice of Stabilization Level <ul><li>In order to decide on the stabilization levels, we have to set limits and deadlines. Unfortunately, there is not a consensus on timescales this should be achieved in. </li></ul><ul><li>However, we can conclude that there are problems we should obviously be taking the steps to solve, such as the amount of CO2 we emit. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Choice of Stabilization Level <ul><li>We have learned how the amount and lifetime of CO2 is what makes it so dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>To slow this down, we would have to drastically cut our emissions. In order to stabilize our CO2 level, we would have to alter the amount of energy available, ultimately resulting in the crippling in the economy. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Choice of Stabilization Level <ul><li>How do we compare the costs, financially, to change our CO2 habits to the cost of the repercussions if we don’t? </li></ul><ul><li>How about when you consider that some may believe that we are past the tipping point and ecosystems are already going to become extinct? How do you convince we need to spend money to change our impact? </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Choice of Stabilization Level <ul><li>The book states that when all the factors is considered, our ideal target range for stabilization of CO2 should be between 400-550 ppm </li></ul>CO 2 emission per capita per year per country in 2004 Source: Wikipedia.com
  24. 25. 8. Realizing the Climate Convention Objective
  25. 26. Realizing the Climate Convention Objective <ul><li>The Climate Convention uses 4 main principles in determining its objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Principle of Sustainable Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precautionary Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Polluter-Pays Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Principle of Equity </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Realizing the Climate Convention Objective <ul><li>The main obstacle is applying these main obstacles to all countries, developed and not. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We must consider that there are developing countries that need to be able to emit CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Global Commons Institute has come up with the ‘Contraction Convergence Theory’ to solve this problem. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Source: www.cru.uea.ac.uk Climate Research Unit in Norwich
  28. 29. Realizing the Climate Convention Objective <ul><li>Contraction and Convergence Theory </li></ul><ul><li>-The idea addresses all the 4 Principles </li></ul><ul><li>It encourages international equity where the biggest polluters pay the most. </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, the idea is to envelope emissions until 2030 </li></ul>
  29. 30. Possible Solutions? <ul><li>What is a plan that we can use to cap our emissions by a certain time, without compromising the growth of developing countries? </li></ul>Source: http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/
  30. 31. 9. Summary of the Action Required
  31. 32. Summary of the Action Required <ul><li>Revise Montreal Protocol to strengthen CFCs and CFC substitutes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in afforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Easy ways to reduce methane </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic energy conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Increase implementation of renewable energies such as wind, solar, hydro… etc. </li></ul>
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