Print culture and the modern world

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Print culture and the modern world

  1. 1. PRINT CULTURE ANDTHE MODERN WORLD :Pooja Singhal Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  2. 2. THE FIRST PRINTED BOOKSThe Earliest kind of print technologydeveloped in China, Japan and KoreaFrom AD 576 onwards, books in China wereprinted by rubbing paper against inked surfaceof woodblocks Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  3. 3. ACCORDION BOOKThe Traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ wasfolded and stitched at the side Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  4. 4. CALLIGRAPHYCalligraphy is the art of beautiful and stylisedwritingSuperbly skilled craftsmen could duplicate itwith accuracy Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  5. 5. For a very long time china remained themajor producer of printed materialFurther the Civil service examinationexpanded the use of print materialApart from scholars even merchants startedusing print material Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  6. 6. Rich women began to read and publish theirpoetry and playsNew reading culture was occupied by newtechnologyShanghai became the hub of the new printculture Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  7. 7. PRINT IN JAPANBuddhist missionaries from China introducedhand-printing technology into Japan (AD 768-770)The oldest Japanese book, printed in AD 868,is the Buddhist ‘DIAMOND SUTRA’ Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  8. 8. Pictures were printed on textiles, playingcards and paper moneyIn medieval Japan, poets and prose writerwere regularly publishedBooks were cheap abundantPrinting of visual material led to interestingpublishing practices Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  9. 9. PRINT COMES TO EUROPE In 1295, Marco polo, a great explorer returned to Italyafter many years of exploration in China He brought the knowledge of print technology backwith him from China Luxury editions were still hand written on veryexpensive VELLUM Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  10. 10. Demand for books increased and Europebegan exporting books to different countriesBook fairs were heldScribes started working for booksellers Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  11. 11. LIMITATIONS Handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the ever-increasing demands for books Copying was expensive, laborious and time-consuming Manuscripts were fragile, difficult to handle and carryaround Their circulation remained limited Thus there was a great need for quicker and cheaperproduction Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  12. 12. RISE OF PRINTING PRESSGutenberg was the son of a merchant and grewup on a large agricultural estateHe became a master goldsmithHe created lead moulds for making trinketsThe adopted this technology to design newinnovation Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  13. 13.  The olive press provided the model for printing press Moulds were used for casting metal types for the letters By 1448, he perfected the system The first book he printed was ‘The Bible’ with 180copies It took 3yrs to produce them Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  14. 14.  By the standards of time the production became fast But this new technology did not entirely displaced theart of producing books by hand The shift from hand printing to mechanical printingled to the ‘Print Revolution’ Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  15. 15. GUTENBERG’S PRINTING PRESS Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  16. 16. THE BIBLEPooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  17. 17. PRINT REVOLUTION (MEANING) Development of new ways of producing books Transformed the lives of people Change in their relationship with institutions andauthorities Influenced popular perceptions Opened up new ways of looking at things Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  18. 18. IMPACT OF PRINT REVOLUTION • A NEW READING PUBLICA. • RELIGIOUS DEBATES AND THEB. FEAR OF PRINT • PRINT AND DISSENTC. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  19. 19. A. NEW READING PUBLICA new reading public emergedPrinting press reduced the cost, timeand labourBooks flooded the market Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  20. 20. Common people live in the world of oralcultureThey heard sacred texts read out, balladsrecited and folks tales narratedAccess to books created a new culture ofreading Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  21. 21. The transmission of new reading culture waseasy as the literacy rate were very lowSo printers began printing publishing popularballads and folk tales illustrated with picturesThese were sung and recited in villages andin taverns in towns Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  22. 22. AS A RESULT….Oral culture entered print and printedmaterial was orally transmittedThe hearing public and reading publicbecame intermingled Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  23. 23. B. RELIGIOUS DEBATESAND THE FEAR OF PRINTPrint created the wide circulation of ideasIntroduced a new world of debate anddiscussion Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  24. 24. FEAR OF PRINT… Many were apprehensive of the effect of widercirculation of books on the mind of people Rebellious & irreligious thoughts might spread The authority of valuable literature would be destroyed this anxiety to the widespread criticism of print media Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  25. 25. EXAMPLE… In 1517, the religious reformer Martin Luther wroteNinety five theses criticising many of the practices &rituals of the Roman Catholic Church This lead to a division within the church and to thebeginning of the ‘Protestant Reformation’ Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  26. 26. C . PRINT AND DISSENT Print & religious literature stimulated many distinctiveindividual interpretations of faith Manocchio reinterpreted the message of Bible andformulated a view of god & creation that enraged theRoman Catholic Church Manocchio was executed for his heretical ideas Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
  27. 27.  The Roman Church was troubled by such effects ofpopular readings Thus, they imposed severe controls publishers &booksellers The Index of Prohibited Books was introduced from1558 Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI
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