Educational Technology- Presenting the Art of Teaching in a New Fashion Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, JMI.1 Pooja Singhal Ph.D Research Scholar Jamia Millia Islamia
JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar,“Books have come between our mind and life. They deprived us of our natural faculty of getting knowledge directly from nature and life and have generated within us the habit of knowing everything from books. We touch the world not with our minds but with our books. They dehumanize us and make us unsocial. Let the students gather knowledge and materials from different regions of the country, from direct sources and from their own independent efforts.” 2 - Rabindranath Tagore
In ancient days, a teacher enjoyed a very high respectful position and honour as Guru JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, Now with the increasing complexity of modern times, education faces ever-changing new demands Mostly teachers have to bear all the burden of all the changes. The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pivotal role in the social reconstruction of wisdom, knowledge and experiences of one generation to another. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. They are always exposed to the information of the teacher. It is, therefore, necessary to realize that the emerging Indian society can achieve all round development with the help of the teacher who acts as a powerful agency in transmitting its cherish values. 3 A teacher is not only custodian of a nation’s value but is also an architect par excellence of new values.
EMERGENCE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYIN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION Man has always desired for excellence. This desire has given birth to new inventions and JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, innovations in all walks of life. Science and technology has always been instrument in bringing efficiency and improvement in the process and product of the human work. The world of education has been influenced by the increased use of technology. It has provided valuable help in improving the task of the 4 teacher, smoothening the process of teaching-learning and enriching the goals of education.
History of the use of technology in education takes us to the stage when the subject matter becomes available in JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, the form of printing material and text-books. It was soon supplemented by the use of teaching aids like black-boards, specimen, pictures, charts, models, maps and figures etc. In this way the earlier concept of educational technology was limited to simple audio-visuals and meant for direct 5 teaching-learning.
Later on the industrial revolution and technological advancement, sophisticated scientific instruments, mass media and educational materials were being used. It brought the use of sophisticated hardware and software like radio, television, tape recorder, films, JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, transparencies etc. in the field of education 6
The concept of programmed instruction and theories of learning, later on added another dimension to the meaning and concept of educational technology. JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, This was again broadened when the new approaches in the form of systematic approach, micro teaching, interactions analysis and computer aided instructions came into existence. In this way the introduction of new approaches, contents, theories, means and materials, management skills and objectives in the field of teaching and learning, lead to a gradual shift in the meaning, definition, concept, nature7 and scope of the term Educational technology.
The term educational technology carries a wide meaning. It can neither be confined to the use of audio-visual aids, a software materials and hardware equipments nor be limited to the use psychological principles and instructional theories JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, for bringing improvement in the process of teaching learning. Being a science and technology of education, it should cover all that happens during the planning, implementation and evaluation of the teaching-learning process. It should device way and means to explore and utilize all the resources to bring improvement in the teaching learning process. Thus, in brief the educational technology stands for the wise application of the available human and non-human resources for providing appropriate solution to the educational problems and to improve the processes and products of 8 education.
JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar,As defined by the Commission on Instructional Technology, USA;‘Educational Technology is a systematic way of designing, implementing and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication and employing a combination of human and non-human resources to bring about more effective instruction’. 9
NEED OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN 21ST CENTURY Population explosion Knowledge is expending everyday JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, To develop new strategies in the field of education like micro teaching, programmed instruction, Instructional analysis and use of hardware technology in education etc. Make the entire teaching-learning process objective, clear, scientific and interesting. 10 Enables the teacher to control and modify the classroom environment in his/her own favor.
Emphasizes theories and principles of teaching more than those of learning. Thus, it has raised the significance and relevance of a teacher in the classroom JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, By demonstrating the effective teaching of renowned teachers on these media, one can benefit millions of students together Beneficial for teacher training institutes because it helps in the modification of teacher’s behavior. Thus, helps in preparing competent and skilled teachers Helps in analyzing the problem of school administration scientifically leading to improvement in system 11 It helps in preservation of knowledge for future use
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND THE TEACHERSIntroduction of educational technology in the field of education has affected the conventional roles of the teachers and equip them with technical mindset to perform various activities related to teaching in the following manner: JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, Educational technology has provided a scientific base to educational theory and practices It has helped the teachers to use scientific and systematic approach to conduct action research in the classroom situation to overcome the classroom problems, related to classroom environment, content, curriculum etc. It helps teachers to modernize and mechanize the teaching learning process. It also helps the learner to study at their own rate with the help of programmed instructions on video or 12 computers.
Educational technology supplements teachers in their instructional programmes through the structured lessons for remedial, enrichment or drill purpose. The learners get the training of self-instruction and JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, teachers are relieved of the burden of routine repetition for exercise and revision purposes Educational technology supplements the teacher with audio-visual aids to make the teaching-learning process more effective Through analyzing the content and organizing it in a systematic, logical and psychological order in their lesson plans teachers, especially prospective teachers, visit the classroom with confidence and put up a high profile performance due to their total control on content and process 13 Helps in teacher’s professional growth.
Adds to their teaching competence, modify their teaching behavior and style, inculcate a scientific outlook, approach and attitude. It further helps them to transfer these to the learners as well It helps in realizing pre-specified learning objectives by incorporating JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, available procedures and techniques Educational technology helps the teachers to identify the students and their abilities by testing their entering behavior and by arranging the subject matter accordingly If the same teaching strategy or technique is used throughout the lesson, it bores the students a lot. For this purpose, change in strategies is needed every now and then. Education technology helps the teacher to bring about change and novelty in them in an unnoticeable manner The ultimate aim of educational technology is to make teaching-learning process effective. For this purpose the teacher not only changes his 14 process off and on but he/she also uses new technological equipments in his/her teaching.
LIMITATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY There is only one way communication and thus they are non- interactive JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, It is mechanical with no human touch. Thus does not cater to the emotional needs of the learner nor do they share experiences or feelings High technologies are quite expensive. In some of the schools there are not even blackboards, in such situations it becomes impossible to even think of computers, video-tapes, video-disks etc. They demand competent and skilled teachers with technical knowledge 15 They demand lot of care while handling and maintenance of high technology becomes a challenging task
CONCLUSION Inspite of all the limitations the role and contribution of education technology in the field of education cannot be overlooked. Though technology can do a number of teaching JMI. Pooja Singhal, Ph.D Research Scholar, functions quite effectively but this does not imply that it can diminish or replace the role of a teacher Teaching-learning process can be made more effective if both teachers and educational technologies go together aiming at the same goals and objectives. 16