Introduction to Robots
Types of making Nanorobots
Replacement of heart bypass surgery by Nanorobots
It is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent usually an
electromechanical machine that is guided by computer
program or electronic circuitry.
Examples: ASIMO , TOPIO, Nanorobots, Swarm robots
and Industrial robots.
1. Mobile robots
2. Rolling robots
3. Walking robots
5. Autonomous robots 6. Beam robots
7. Virtual robots
8. Remote control robots
It deals with design, construction, operation and
application of robots and computer systems for their
control, sensory feedback and information processing.
These technologies deal with automated machines that can
take place of humans in hazardous or manufacturing
Today, robotics is rapidly growing field, as we continue to
research, design, and build new robots that serve various
It is the manipulation of matter on an atomic and
It works with materials, devices and other structures
with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100
With a variety of potential applications,
nanotechnology is a key technology for the future.
It is the emerging technology field creating machines or
robots whose components are at or close to the scale of a
nanometer (10-9 meters).
Nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering
discipline of designing and building nanorobots, with
devices ranging in size from 0.1–10 micrometers and
constructed of nanoscale or molecular components.
Other names: nanobots, nanoids, nanites, nano-machines ,
One of the most advanced forms of nano-medicine is
nanorobots. Nanorobots are microscopic devices measured
on the scale of nanometers.
Fig: A design of nanorobot
with sensors, molecular
sorting rotors and fins
A sensor (also called detector) is a converter that measures
a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read
by an observer or by an (mostly electronic) instrument.
Molecular sorting rotor:
A class of nanomechanical device capable of selectively binding
(or releasing) molecules from/ to solution, and of transporting
these bound molecules against significant concentration gradients.
A fin is a surface used for stability and/or to produce lift and
thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media.
TYPES OF MAKING NANOROBOTS:
2. Bacteria based
The first approach is through nubots. Nubot is an abbreviation
for „nucleic acid robots.‟ Nubots are organic molecular
machines at the nanoscale. DNA structure can provide means
to assemble 2D and 3D nanomechanical devices.
2. Bacteria based:
This approach proposes the use of biological microorganisms,
like the bacterium E- coli. Thus the model uses a flagellum for
propulsion purposes. The uses of electromagnetic fields are
normally applied to control the motion of this kind of
biological integrated device.
Atomic force microscope
Nano macro/microscale robots
Single molecule car
Diagnosis and treatment of Diabetes
INTRODUCTION TO HEART BYPASS SURGERY:
• It reroutes the blood supply around clogged arteries to improve
blood flow and oxygen to the heart.
• It involves an incision in the middle of the chest and separation
of the breastbone and detouring ,the breastbone is joined using
wire and the incision sewed.
Side effects of normal heart bypass surgery:
1.loss of appetite, constipation
2.swelling in the area from which the segment of blood vessel
3.fatigue,mood swings, feelings of depression, difficulty
4.muscle pain or tightness in the shoulders and upper back
PROPERTIES OF NANOROBOT USED:
It has 2 spaces-interior and exterior
An electric motor is attached for it‟s propagation inside
the circulatory system in the blood vessels
The microprocessor, artery thermometer, camera, rotating
needle are incorporated
The microprocessor based control unit is used to control
the overall operations of nanorobot
Radioactive material is used as a part of exterior surface,
which helps to nanorobot at any period of time
Magnetic switch is used to provide to switch on and off
nanorobot at any point of time
Introduction of nanorobot into human
The nanorobot gets access into the
body through a large diameter artery
so that it may be without being
too destructive in the first place.
Fig. The robot swims through the arteries
and using a pair of tail appendages
Driving of nanorobot to the site of plaque:
•Long range sensors are used to allow
the machine to navigate to the site of
the plaque closely enough so that the
use of short range sensors is practical
•These are used during actual
operations, to allow the device to
distinguish between healthy and
•Long-range sensor-Radioactive dye
•Device for monitoring the whole
Fig: Nanorobot detecting
the site of plaque
Source of power and means of recovery:
• The nuclear power is carried onboard to supply required
amount of energy for the operation of the device
• After the nanorobot has removed the plaque, and its function is
over, it has to be removed from the body. This can be made
possible by guiding the nanorobot to anchor a blood vessel that
is easily accessible from outside, and perform a small surgical
operation to remove it.
Fig. Removal of nanorobot
From the body
From this seminar report we conclude that, NANOROBOTICS is one
of the emerging fields in technology and robotics. Nanorobotics is the
technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a
nanometer (10-9 meters). More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the
still largely theoretical nanotechnology engineering discipline of
designing and building nanorobots. Nanorobots (nanobots or nanoids)
are typically devices constructed of nanoscale or molecular
components. This paper describes the design of nanorobots and
application of nanorobot in heart bypass surgery that involves so many
risks to the patient. However, no matter how highly trained the
specialists may be, surgery can still be dangerous. So nanorobot is not
only the safest but also fast and better technique to remove the plaque
deposited on the internal walls of arteries. This is also an efficient
method to remove these hard plaques without any surgical procedure
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