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  1. 1. FUELS<br />
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  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF FUELS:<br />Depending on their physical state may be classified into <br />Solid fuels <br />Liquid fuels <br />Gaseous fuels <br /> They are further divided into<br />Primary or natural<br /> Secondary or derived fuels <br />
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  6. 6. Characteristicoffuel:<br />High calorific value <br />Composition of the fuel <br />Specific heat of combustion <br />Flame temperature <br />Fire point <br />Flash point <br />Pour point<br />Cloud point <br />Explosive range <br />
  7. 7. HIGH CALORIFIC VALUE3 of solid or liquid fuel or 1*10ˆ-6 at one atmosphere pressure of a gaseous fuel is completely burnt in excess : The total quantity of heat liberated , when 1*10ˆ-of air or oxygen and the products of combustion cooled to room temperature .<br />COMPOSITION OF FUEL: low moisture content , less volatile matter, high carbon content or combustible substance, ballast must be low.<br />FLAME TEMPERATURE: The minimum temperature to which an object can be heated by a flame of fuel. <br />FIRE POINT : Temperature in which the oil vapor will catch fire and continue to burn.<br />
  8. 8. FLASH POINT: It is the minimum temperature at which a sample of a fuel oil gives off enough vapors to catch fire (but don’t continue to burn) by the naked flame or electric discharge . It depends on vapour pressure. <br />POUR POINT: The temperature at which cloudiness appear in a sample of oil due to the separation of wax under standard condition . <br />CLOUD POINT : The temperature at which oil ceases to flow , when cooled under standard conditions.<br />EXPLOSIVE RANGE : The limiting composition of a gas –air mixture , beyond which the mixture will not igniteand continue to burn .<br />
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  10. 10. They should have high carbon content high calorific value.<br />It should give low ash content or no ash or carbon.<br />Should possess low moisture and volatile matter.<br />Rate of combustion should be uniform and moderate.<br />Should have moderate ignition temperature. <br />Combustion should be easily controllable. <br />It should not produce toxic gases during combustion. <br />Quality of a good fuel <br />
  11. 11. GASEOUS FUELS <br />The important gaseous fuels are <br />Water gas <br />Coal gas <br />Producer gas<br />Acetylene <br />Bio gas <br />Liquefied petroleum gas etc..<br />
  12. 12. Advantages of gaseous fuel:<br />Gaseous fuels have high calorific value. <br />Rate of combustion is very high but can be easily controlled.<br />The higher temperature is obtained and can be easily controlled.<br />It can be easily distributed through pipes from the source of production. <br />They neither produce smoke nor ash .<br />
  13. 13. Natural gas <br />
  14. 14. Natural gas <br /> It is found in nature in association with or without petroleum deposits.<br />
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  17. 17. Used as an excellent industrial and domestic fuel.<br />Used as raw material for the manufacture of carbon black and hydrogen gas.<br />Employed as a member of chemicals in various synthetic processes. <br />APPLICATION<br />
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  19. 19. Advantage of natural gases <br /><ul><li> it can be conveyed to over large distances through pipelines
  20. 20. It burns with blue flame and gives no smoke or ash.
  21. 21. It has high calorific value 12000-14000 kcal/m3
  22. 22. It is cheap and convenient fuel. </li></li></ul><li>Water gas <br /> It is a mixture of combustible gas, CO, and hydrogen with little non-combustible gases like CO2 and nitrogen .<br />
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  24. 24. MANUFACTURE<br />Cup and cone feeder <br />
  25. 25. PROCESS <br />C + H2O ----------> CO +H2 H=121.5 KJ<br />(STEAM) (WATER GAS)<br />C(s)+O2(g)-----------> CO2(GAS) <br />2C (s) + O2(g) --------> 2CO<br />
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  27. 27. APPLICATION<br />Used as a source of hydrogen gas.<br />As a fuel gas and as an illuminating agent.<br />In the manufacture of methanol and synthetic petrol.<br />As reducing agent.<br />
  28. 28. PRODUCER GAS <br />It is a mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen. <br />
  29. 29. Composition of producer gas <br />
  30. 30. Calorific value <br />The calorific value of producer Gas is 1308kcal/m3<br />The low calorific value is due to the presence of large excess of non combustible gases like nitrogen and carbon dioxide. <br />
  31. 31. MANUFACTURE <br />Cup & cone feeder<br />Producer gas outlet <br />Refractory fire bricks <br />Distillation zone <br />Reduction zone <br />Combustion zone <br />Ash zone <br />
  32. 32. PROCESS <br />C (s)+ O2(g) ----------->CO2(g)<br /> H= -394 kj<br /> CO2(g) +C (s)-------> 2CO(g) H= +163 kj<br />The overall reaction <br />2C(s)+O2(g)----------->2CO(g) <br /> H= -231 kj<br />
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  34. 34. APPLICATION <br />It is used as a fuel for heating retorts in preparing coal gas.<br />It is used as a fuel for heating open hearth furnace in the manufacture of steel and glass.<br />It is used as a reducing agent in metallurgy.<br />
  35. 35. BIO GAS <br />
  36. 36. BIO GAS <br />Biogas is obtained by the degradation of biological matter by the bacterial action in the absence of free oxygen<br />
  37. 37. COMPOSITION OF BIO GAS <br />
  38. 38. PRODUCTION OF BIO GAS <br />
  39. 39. ADVANTAGE OF BIO GAS <br />The production of biogas is more economical.<br />It also yields simultaneously excellent manure. The nitrogen content of the manure is about 2% as against 0.75% in farm yard manure.<br />The biogas has all the advantages of gaseous fuel.<br />It does not contain any poisonous gas like carbon monoxide.<br />It can burn with pale blue flame and gives temperature of 813K with proper burner.<br />
  40. 40. LPG<br />
  41. 41. LPG <br />LPG is a mixture of lower hydrocarbon of C3 and C4, which are mainly propane, butane, isobutylene and butylene with little or no propylene and ethane. <br />
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  43. 43. COMPOSITION <br />
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  45. 45. APPLICATION <br />It is widely used as a domestic fuel for cooking.<br />As industrial fuel.<br />As motor fuel.<br />
  46. 46. It has high calorific value.<br />It burns with a smokeless flame and does not cause pollution.<br />It does not produce any poisonous gas on combustion.<br />It is easy to handle and convenient to store.<br />ADVANTAGES OF LPG <br />
  47. 47. ADVANTAGES OF LPG AS MOTOR FUEL <br />It is less costlier than gasoline.<br />It mixes easily with air and gives better distribution.<br />Residue and oil contamination is small as it burns clearly.<br />Engine life is increased.<br />
  48. 48. DISADVANTAGE OF LPG AS MOTOR FUEL <br />Handling has to be done with utmost care.<br />Due to its faint odor, leakage can not be detected easily.<br />It is advantageous only in engines working under high compression ratio.<br />It has low octane number and road sensitivity is very high.<br />
  49. 49. THANK YOU<br />