Endosulphan 2007

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  • Endosulphan 2007

    1. 1. 1<br />
    2. 2. 2<br />
    3. 3. 3<br />
    4. 4. 4<br />
    5. 5. WHAT IS IT….. <br />5<br />
    6. 6. ENDOSULFAN<br />not a pest killer but a human killer ……<br />6<br />
    7. 7. ENDOSULFAN<br />7<br />
    8. 8. According to the United Nations, some 18,000 to 20,000 tons of endosulfan is produced around the world each year, with India being the world’s largest producer—it’s a 100-million industry here.<br />Each year, India manufactures about 50% of endosulfan. The biggest users are India, Brazil, and China, while Argentina and the United States also consume significant quantities.<br />8<br />
    9. 9. <ul><li>In INDIA, Hindustan Insecticide Ltd is the producer of Endosulfan.
    10. 10. Sold under trade names –
    11. 11. THIONEX
    12. 12. ENDOCIL
    13. 13. PHASER
    14. 14. BENZOEPIN.</li></ul>9<br />
    15. 15. Itis a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide of the Cyclodiene subgroup which act as a contact poison in wide variety of insects and mites <br />ENDOSULFAN<br />10<br />
    16. 16. Endosulfan is a derivative of hexachlorocyclopentadiene and is chemically similar to aldrin, chlordane, and heptachlor. <br />Technical endosulfan is a 7:3 mixture of stereoisomer's, designated α and β <br />11<br />
    17. 17. Chemical Name6,7,8,9,10,10- hexa chloro- 1,5,5a,6,9,9a- hexahydro – 6,9- methano- 2,4,3- benzodioxathiepine-3-oxide.Chemical Formula : C9H6Cl6O3S<br />12<br />
    18. 18. 13<br />
    19. 19. TOXICITY : NEUROTOXIC<br />COLOUR : BROWN <br />STATE / FORM : SOLID,CRYSTALS <br />ODOUR : SLIGHT SULPHURDIOXIDE<br />NATURE : CNS stimulant <br />GROUP : chlorinated cyclodieneinsecticide <br />14<br />
    20. 20. Chemical property<br />It’s melting point is 181˚C<br />It has molecular weight of 422.95.<br />It has a solubility of 0.32mg/l for alpha isograms and 0.33 mg for beta isomer in water.<br />It has a solubility of 20g/100 g in toluene and 2.4g/100g in hexane.<br />It is an organo chloride pesticide.<br />It is a neurotoxic pesticide belonging to the group of cyclodienes.<br />15<br />
    21. 21. 16<br />
    22. 22. RULES WHILE SPRAYING ENDOSULPHAN<br />Endosulphan should be sprayed at a height of not more than 2-3m above foliage.<br />Prior information has to be given to people in that particular area .<br />Advice them to keep away from the area of application for about 20 days.<br />All water bodies should be kept covered while spraying endosulphan.<br />17<br />
    23. 23. USES<br />Effective against a wide range of insects like beetles, caterpillars, woolly apple aphid, coloradobeetle, leaf hoppers & cabbage worms -by contact & stomach action. <br />Used as a pre-harvest insecticide on fruits, nuts, vegetables, field & grain crops including rice & ornamentals.<br />Also used on non-food crops such as tobacco& cotton.<br />18<br />
    24. 24. 19<br />
    25. 25. EFFECTS TO THE ENVIRONMENT<br />Endosulfan breaks down into endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan diol, and its residues remains in the soil for around 6 years.<br />Endosulfan is subject to  long range atmospheric transport ,i.e., it can travel long distances from where it is used. <br />
    26. 26. AQUATIC EFFECTS<br />Endosulfan has relatively high potential to bioaccumulatein fish.<br />Blood glucose levels in fish are elevated.<br />It is toxic to amphibians and low levels have been found to kill tadpoles<br />21<br />
    27. 27. 22<br />
    28. 28. Exposure to endosulphan<br /><ul><li>By breathing air near where it has been</li></ul>sprayed.<br /><ul><li>Drinking water contaminated directly or</li></ul> through run-offs.<br /><ul><li>Being in contact with contaminated soil.
    29. 29. Eating contaminated food.
    30. 30. Smoking cigarettes made from endosulfan</li></ul> contaminated tobacco.<br /><ul><li>Working at endosulfan production centers , direct ingestion.</li></ul>23<br />
    31. 31. HEALTH EFFECTS<br />24<br />
    32. 32. SYMPTOMS<br />Hypersensitive to stimulation, sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on skin.<br />Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, in coordination, tremor, mental confusion, hyper excitable state.<br />In severe cases: convulsions, seizures, coma and respiratory depression. <br />
    33. 33. NUEROLOGICAL PROBLEMS<br />Directly effects CNS and prevent it from working properly.<br />Learning disabilities, low IQ, scholastic backwardness.<br />Severe poisoning may lead to death.<br />26<br />
    34. 34. 27<br />
    35. 35. MAIN CAUSES<br />Endosulfan can also affect human development. <br />The main disease that has been noticed is skin disease.<br />Blood cancers, delays maturity among boys ,<br />Birth defects of the male reproductive system.<br />AND death<br />28<br />
    36. 36. Since India is the largest user of ENDOSULFAN its after effects are being seen in kasargod dst & Kerala.<br />29<br />
    37. 37. Endosulfan was sprayed in the cashew plantations in Kasaragod District since 1976, till 2001 regularly thrice every year.<br />The intensive use of Endosulfan resulted in a chemical disaster……<br />30<br />
    38. 38. The worst of all the cases so far reported are from three nations<br /> - Cuba, Benin and India.<br />31<br />
    39. 39. Adopt "Land and Food without Poisons" as a goal for survival and adopt organic, ecological or natural agriculture in your farm.<br />32<br />
    40. 40. 33<br />
    41. 41. 34<br />
    42. 42. THE LIVING DEAD…<br />35<br />
    43. 43. 36<br />
    44. 44. 37<br />
    45. 45. THE LIVING DEAD…………<br />Kerala`s endosulfan victims…<br />38<br />
    46. 46. Sainaba-whozz overgrowth of head caused her death……….<br />39<br />
    47. 47. A cry for life………<br />40<br />
    48. 48. 41<br />
    49. 49. 42<br />
    50. 50. 43<br />
    51. 51. 44<br />
    52. 52. 45<br />I ll crab you ………<br />
    53. 53. SO…....<br />46<br />
    54. 54. 47<br />Say ‘NO’ to ENDOSULFAN………<br />
    55. 55. STOP ENDOSULPHAN<br />STOP KILLING <br />48<br />
    56. 56. Stop endosulfan….<br />Stop pesticide<br />poisoning!!!!! <br />49<br />
    57. 57. Letzzz pledge together……. <br />NO more ENDOSULFAN!!!!!!!!<br />50<br />
    58. 58. 51<br />THANK YOU<br />

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