Aeromicroby seminar 2007


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presence of microbes in air

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Aeromicroby seminar 2007

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  3. 3. During 1930s the term aeromicrobiology was used to denote the air borne spores (e.g. fungi and other microorganisms )<br />Further in 1951 ,the term was elaborated to include dispersion of insect population, fungal spores, bacteria and viruses.<br />In 1964, the term included the research work of air borne materials of biological significance.<br />
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  5. 5. It is the study of those invisible microorganisms (which are less <br /> 1mm in size & not visible through naked eyes) which are present in air.<br />
  6. 6. Study of aerosolization, aerial transmission and biological materials.<br />It also includes the study of diseases transmitted through respiratory routes.<br />The field of aeromicrobiology is important as it involves, <br />Formation of aerosols .<br />Their transmission and deposition in soil. <br />
  7. 7. The important gases that effect the microorganisms are hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, chlorine, hydrogen fluoride, ozone , etc. <br />The microbial forms are bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes , algae, spores of pteridophytes, pollen grains, micro insects and viruses. <br />
  8. 8. Aerosols<br />machine fans<br />air conditioners<br />vents<br /> Wind blown<br /> long suspension time<br />Man's Actionsploughing<br />digging<br />excavation<br />construction<br />irrigation<br />fertilizers<br />The SOURCES of Microbes in Air<br />Human/Animal<br />breath <br />cough<br />sneeze<br />talk<br />laugh<br />Water droplets<br />fountains<br />streams<br /> ponds<br /> rivers<br />
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  10. 10. Infectious dust<br />dried secretions<br />culturing microbes<br />handkerchief<br />bed making<br />clothes<br /> sweeping<br />Droplets<br />mucous<br />saliva<br />talking<br /> coughing<br /> sneezing<br /> 3 Forms of<br /> Discharge<br />grouped via size and<br /> moisture content<br />survival limited by:<br /><ul><li> humidity
  11. 11. sunlight
  12. 12. susceptibility</li></ul> Droplet Nuclei<br />1-4 µm dry solid of a droplet<br />ability to travel distances<br />
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  14. 14. INDOOR AEROMICRBIOLOGY <br />It deals with microorganisms present in air in indoor environment.<br />They are the microorganisms which are responsible biodeterioraton of storage materials, equipment , library materials and archives.<br />
  15. 15. Indoor aeromicrobiology <br />Aeromicrospora of pharmacy.<br />Aeromicroflora of hospitals.<br />Houses<br />Aeromicroflora of storage<br />materials. <br />
  16. 16. AEROALLERGENS AND AEROALLERGY<br />Allergy is caused by certain biological & abiological agents present in the atmosphere.<br />The allergy causing agents in the air are called aeroallergens.<br />The allergy caused by them is called aeroallergy.<br />
  17. 17. Aeroallergens <br />House dust allergens .<br />Pollen grains.<br />Cosmetics .<br />
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  20. 20. PHYLLOPLANE MICROFLORA <br />(1)<br />(5)<br />Microorganism colonizes the leaves . <br />Landing stage for the microbial propagules <br />(2)<br />Insects excreta on the leaf surface serve as food .<br />Deposited by impaction, sedimentation under gravity and in rain and splash droplets <br />(4)<br />(3)<br />Spores get nutrient diffused from leaf and pollen grains present on the surface <br />
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  22. 22. Environmental parameters effecting microbes survival <br />Microbes are continually in the state of stress.<br />Oxygen stress (OAF) and ionic stress. <br />Temperature stress.<br />Moisture stress.<br />UV-radiation stress.<br />
  23. 23. OXYGENIC AND IONIC STRESS<br /> Higher level of oxygen and its reactive form causes inactivation of enzymes.<br /> Damage to DNA.<br />Inactivation of nucleic acids.<br />Naturally occurring ions causes ionic stress causes lightening, water shearing and ion displacement <br />
  24. 24. Both higher and lower temperature causes damage to the microbes.<br />High temperature causes deactivation <br />of proteins and enzymes <br />Lower temperature causes <br />ice crystal formation.<br />
  25. 25. MOISTURE STRESS <br />High moisture causes death <br />Low moisture causes damage to the lipid bilayer .<br />
  26. 26. RADIATION STRESS <br />Shorter wavelength and X-ray causes damage to DNA by <br /><ul><li>Single strand breaks.
  27. 27. Double strand breaks
  28. 28. Alteration in structure of DNA </li></ul>And also effects <br />Genome replication <br />Transcription <br />Translation <br />
  29. 29. BIOAEROSOLS <br />Biological contaminants occurring as solid or liquid particles in air.<br />Size :0.1 -100µ<br />May be single or aggregate form <br />May be adhere to dust particles or surrounded by a film of organic or inorganic matter.<br />Pathogenic for plants, animal and human and also damage inanimate materials.<br />
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