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Media planning, Components of media plan, Media Scheduling, Media Objectives, media strategy, media budgeting, media selling, media innovations, circulation, factors affecting media plan
 

Media planning, Components of media plan, Media Scheduling, Media Objectives, media strategy, media budgeting, media selling, media innovations, circulation, factors affecting media plan

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Media planning, Components of media plan, Media Scheduling, Media Objectives, media strategy, media budgeting, media selling, media innovations, circulation, factors affecting media plan

Media planning, Components of media plan, Media Scheduling, Media Objectives, media strategy, media budgeting, media selling, media innovations, circulation, factors affecting media plan

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    Media planning, Components of media plan, Media Scheduling, Media Objectives, media strategy, media budgeting, media selling, media innovations, circulation, factors affecting media plan Media planning, Components of media plan, Media Scheduling, Media Objectives, media strategy, media budgeting, media selling, media innovations, circulation, factors affecting media plan Document Transcript

    • Unit-1 Unit-1.1 Media PlanningDefinitions- By-Pooja Gurwani 1. “the series of decisions advertisers make regarding the selection and use of media, allowing the marketer to optimally and cost-effectively communicate the message to the target audience” 2. “process of selecting the advertising media and deciding the time or space in which the ads should appear” 3. the process of selecting the advertising media and deciding the time or space in which the ads should appear to accomplish a marketing objective. 4. the series of decisions advertisers make regarding the selection and use of media, allowing the marketer to optimally and cost-effectively communicate the message to the target audience. 5. the process of evaluating and selecting the media mix that will deliver a clear, consistent, compelling message to the intended audience 6. the process of evaluating and selecting the media mix that will deliver a clear, consistent, compelling message to the intended audience. 7. conceive, analyze, and creatively select channels of communication that will direct advertising messages to the right people in the right place in the right time 8. the process of deciding how to most effectively get your marketing communications seenby your target audience. 9. A process for determining the most cost-effective mix of media for achieving a set of media objectives. •Goal: maximize impact while minimizing cost •Media is often the largest MC budget item 10. The design of a strategy that shows how investmentsin advertising time and space will contribute toachievement of marketing objectives. 11. Media planning is about determining the best MediaMix (i.e., the best combination of one-way and two-way media) to reach a particular target for a particular brand situation.Meaning-Media planning is generally the task of a media agency and entails finding the most appropriate media platforms fora clients brand or product. The job of media planning involves several areas of expertise that the media planner usesto determine what the best combination of media is to achieve the given marketing campaign objectives.In the process of planning the media planner needs to answer questions such as: 1. How many of the audience can I reach through different media? 2. On which media (and ad vehicles) should I place ads? 3. Which frequency should I select? 1
    • 4. How much money should be spent in each medium?In answering these questions the media planner then comes to an optimum media plan that enables him or her todeliver on the clients objectives.Choosing which media or type of advertising to use is sometimes tricky for small firms with limited budgets and know-how. Large-market television and newspapers are often too expensive for a company that services only a small area(although local newspapers can be used). Magazines, unless local, usually cover too much territory to be cost-efficient for a small firm, although some national publications offer regional or city editions. Metropolitan radio stationspresent the same problems as TV and metro newspapers; however, in smaller markets, the local radio station andnewspaper may sufficiently cover a small firms audience. By-Pooja GurwaniFor understanding the Media planning in detail as Pavitra sir explained in class one need to understand theclassification of different types of media that a media planner may be dealing with which are given below-1- Print Media-Newspaper-Magazines-All the other type of publications ( e.g.House Journals)2- Electronic Media-Radio-Television 2
    • 3- Cinema (Media)4- Traditional/Folk Media-puppetry-nukkad natak-jatra-folk songs-folk dance-nautanki-Tamasha By-Pooja Gurwani5-Outdoor Media-Banner-Neon Sign Boards-Transit Media-Sky balloons-Sandwitchman-posters,etc5- New Media-Walkie-Talkie-Satelitte Phones-Pager-Mobile phones-internet (www page, window poppers, banner ads, etc)6- Platform Media-International seminars-roadshows-agitations-sponsors-celeb endorsement 3
    • Components of a Media Plan By-Pooja GurwaniTHE COMPONENTS OF THE MEDIA PLANA thorough knowledge of the characteristics of the various advertising media issomewhat like knowing the vocabularyto a language without the grammer. Like avocabulary, media characteristic don’t allow you to put the pieces togetherinto ameaningful whole. A media plan is made up of many elements in addition to adescriptive analysis of the variousmedia. While there is no standard format, thefollowing elements are found in most national plans:Media Plan componentsOrCriteria Considered in the Development of MediaPlans1.The media mix2.Target market coverage3.Geographic coverage4 . S c h e d u l i n g5.Reach versus frequency 4
    • 6.Creative aspects and mood7.Flexibility8.Budget considerations1.Media mix:The media mix has to reach the target consumer. It theadvertiser wants to reach men between 25 and 55 who areprofessional, theEconomic Times will be obviously a more appropriate choice than Femina. Butsometimes matchingconsumer profiles with media characteristics becomes alot more difficult. For example: Media planners will find itdifficult to decide whichkind of households can be reached by the Hindi feature film TV slot v/s the 9O’clock serialslot. A thorough analysis of the target market will help in makingthis match and will reduce wastage of mediaexpenditure. By-Pooja Gurwani2.Target market coverage: Audience can also be described inpsychographics terms – activities, interest, and opinions forming a lifestyle,personality traits, and brand preferences. After having a complete picture of our target audience, we undertakethe study of the media’s readership in terms of demographic, economic and psychographics terms.3.Geographic coverage:Media strategy is based upon market coverage.If media planners want to market products nationally, they will selectall-Indianewspapers and magazines. However, if market is limited to a particular region,they shall select vernacularmedia popular in that region. In this way, mediaplanners do not waste resources by advertising product in the regionsin which itis not available. They have to see how strong a product is in a particular geographical region and advertisemore in high potential areas.4.Scheduling:Media scheduling decisions are the decisions about thetiming, continuity and size of the ads. We have to see when toadvertise, for how long, and for what time period. We have to see the size and placement of our ad.5.Reach versus frequency:There should be an attempt in the mediaobjectives to balance the reach and frequency. There should be anappropriatemessage weight at the same time. This will help us realize our advertising plan.To face heavy competitivecampaign, we should have greater frequency toensure the repetition of the message. It is not so important to have awider reach. While advertising an innovation, a greater reach is preferred, to a greater frequency. It is also importantto have a large message weight. Once the mediaobjectives are set, we are ready to develop strategies to realisethem.6.Creative aspects and mood:Creative considerations such as the qualityof reproduction, the colour effect, special effects, have to be considered.Themedium must be appropriate for the ad message. For example: The ads for icecream would be reproduced betterin colour and therefore black and whitenewsprint is not appropriate. Media decisions have to be made inconsultationwith the creative team that has actually produced the ad. Within the mediumselected, decisions related tounit buying, is also influenced by the creativeteam. There is a constant tug-of-war between the creative team and the mediateam . the creative team wants largerspace, more TV and radio time andsuperior quality of POP material, while the media team along with thefinancedepartment of the client looks for economy and maximizing the effect of everyrupee spent on the media.7.Flexibility:The ability of the media to adapt to changing and specificneeds of advertisers is flexibility. Certain media allows suchflexibility withrespect to the advertised message, the geographical coverage and the adbudget For example: the timesof India group of publication may offer advertisers the flexibility of placing ads in different editions of the paper. So 5
    • if,for instance, Parle’s find that competitive activity has increased in Delhi, it mayuse the Delhi edition of Times ofIndia to combat competitor’s activity.8.Budget considerations:A choice of media will depend to a large extentupon the size of the advertising budget. Certain media types may betooexpensive for the funds available. Media Scheduling By-Pooja GurwaniScheduling refers to the pattern of advertising timing, represented as plots on a yearly flowchart. These plots indicate the pattern of scheduled times advertisingmust appear to coincide with favorable selling periods. The classic scheduling models are Continuity, Flighting and Pulsing.ContinuityThis model is primarily for non-seasonal products, yet sometimes for seasonal products. Advertising runs steadily with little variation over the campaign period.There may be short gaps at regular intervals and also long gaps—for instance, one ad every week for 52 weeks, and then a pause. This pattern of advertising isprevalent in service and packaged goods that require continuous reinforcement on the audience for top of mind recollection at point of purchase.Advantages: Works as a reminder Covers the entire purchase cycle Cost efficiencies in the form of large media discounts Positioning advantages within mediaProgram or plan that identifies the media channels used in an advertising campaign, and specifies insertion or broadcast dates, positions, and duration of themessages.Flighting (or "bursting")In media scheduling for seasonal product categories, flighting involves intermittent and irregular periods of advertising, alternating with shorter periods of noadvertising at all. For instance, all of 2000 Target Rating Poinered in a single month, "going dark" for the rest of the year. Halloween costumes are rarelypurchased all year except during the months of September and October.Advantages: Advertisers buy heavier weight than competitors for a relatively shorter period of time Little waste, since advertising concentrates on the best purchasing cycle period Series of commercials appear as a unified campaign on different media vehiclesPulsingPulsing combines flighting and continuous scheduling by using a low advertising level all year round and heavy advertising during peak selling periods. Productcategories that are sold year round but experience a surge in sales at intermittent periods are good candidates for pulsing. For instance, under-arm deodorants,sell all year, but more in summer months.Advantages: Covers different market situations Advantages of both continuity and flighting possible 6
    • Once the media planning and selection is accomplished to the satisfaction of both advertisers and agencies, theattention is diverted to the task of deciding the media scheduling. It concerns answering such questions as how manyof each media vehicles space and time units be bought? Over what and time units, this will be bought? Over whatperiod, should such buying be? Do we want a steady schedule or do we want a `pulsed campaign, concentratingheavily in the beginning and later slowing down ?Normally media scheduling is considered for a four-week period. Thus, to an advertiser, the following six types ofschedules are available.• Steady pulse: Steady pulse is the easiest types of schedules to prepare. For instance, one ad per week for 52 weeksor one ad per month for 12 months may be prepared.• Seasonal Pulse: Seasonal nature of products dictate the use of seasonal pulse in advertising. Examples includePonds Cold cream; ceiling fans; airconditioners etc., in the months of winter and summer respectively. By-Pooja Gurwani• Period Pulse: Scheduling of media at regular intervals but not related to the, seasons of the year, is called theperiodic pulse. Examples may include media scheduling of consumer durables (e.g. mixes) and non-durables (e.g.semiprocessed food to eat) during Puja or X-mas festivals, for gift purposes.• Erratic Pulse: When advertising is spaced at irregular intervals, it is called erratic pulse. Erratic pulse by itself isnot to be ignored. It is quite likely that the advertiser is trying to cause changes in typical purchase cycles. Forinstance, ceiling fans, soft-drinks etc. Advertising in months other than the summer months, could attempt to evenout purchases throughout the year.• Start up Pulse: It is quite common to see a heavily concentrated media scheduling to open either a new product ora new campaign. This is called as start up pulse. For instance, the scheduling adopted by Videocon PIP television, orONIDA - 21 or even the Liril Lime Soaps seen in the July - September 1989 period, had a distinct start up pulse.• Promotional Pulse: This scheduling pattern suits only a particular promotional theme of company. Thus, it willbe more in the nature of onetime only and advertising will be heavily concentrated during a particular time. Examplesof promotional pulse would include the recent advertising for share/debenture issues by several companies and theMRF media campaign for the Jawahar Lal Nehru Centenary Sports meet in 1989.Any thoughts on media scheduling will be dictated by a careful analysis of three factors of media. They are Reach,Frequency and Continuity (RFC). Several researches have been conducted on analysing the data pertaining to RFC.Given below are some major findings which media planners would do well to remember• Continuity assumes importance because advertising is often forgotten if not reinforced by continual exposure. Itwould thus, be unwise for a marketer to spend money one week on running an advertisement which is to be followedby another run say, after six months only. Such long gap will fail to reinforce the message.• Repeated exposures are needed to impress a message on the memories of a large proportion of consumers.• As number of exposure increases, the number of persons who remember it increase. Not only this the length of timefor which they remember also increases. Remembering is a key thing to media planners.• An intensive `burst of advertising is more likely to cause a large number of people to remember it, at least for ashort time than spreading the campaign uniformly.• In many cases reaching as many people as possible may be as important as the task of reaching a fewer number ofpeople but more frequently. It goes without emphasizing that media planning is more an art than a science becausenot many credible and universally applied scientific methods have been evolved as yet. It tests, therefore, theknowledge, perception and skills of any media planner. Media Objectives 7
    • Media objectives often are stated in terms of reach, frequency, gross rating points and continuity.Clearly worded statements that outline what the media plan should accomplish.1. Who is the target market? 2. What is the advertising message? 3. Where are the market priorities?4. When is the best time to advertise? 5. How many, often, long?• appeal to a new segment of the market• attack an existing competitor’s product By-Pooja Gurwani• enhance the image of a product, a brand, a cause, a fi rm or an organisation• increase sales of a product• introduce a new brand or product• support an existing brand.•to reach the target audience•to communicate the message all over•to spread awareness•to promote education•to provide informationTo provide an cost effective measure in apt time Assess roles & responsibilities of both clientand agency in media planning Differentiate among media objectives, mediastrategies and media execution Utilize terminology used in media planningDescribe the steps involved in the mediaselection process Identify the factors affecting the size of anmedia budget Describe the methods of determining the sizeof an media budget Media Strategy 8
    • Media strategy is the way we seek to realize our media objectives. Whenformulated correctly, it enables anadvertiser to rise above the clutter of ads,and stand out in the competition.Media strategy expects media plannersto be creative in using the media. The useof the media should complement and supplement each other. The adshould be consistent with the editorial environment of the media. The placement should be strategic. The media’screative potential is fully used.The ad should provoke readers to look at it more than once. It should beengagingenough, say incorporation of a crossword puzzle in the copy of the ad. We can use non-traditional media like aTamasha show, puppetry or a magic-show. Media can be used to build credibility.To draw an analogy from the world of sports, competing teams would always have a gameplan or a strategy which isdesigned to win or at least not to lose a match. Similarly the media strategy is the overall game plan which is gearedtowards strengthening the communication while countering any move the competition may have.Media strategy therefore defines and provides rationale for the recommended media, spelling out the specific role By-Pooja Gurwanieach one plays either in complementing or supplementing the others. It is not however the tactical plan specificvehicles and exact allocation of budget.Four basic elements of Media strategy statement are:• Media Mix• Usage of Media• Geographic Allocation• Scheduling StrategyLet us examine what each of these are :Media MixFor each target market, a market-media match exercise needs to be done and the role each medium would play incontributing to the achievement of media objectives is described. Summary explanation of the approximate allocationby medium is also provided.Usage of MediaEach medium lends itself for use in various ways, by way of commercial forms in which it is available. How each is tobe used in terms of spot buying vs. sponsorship on television, time/space units general interest vs. special interestpublications, prime time/space vs. non-prime time/space, colour vs. black & white, main issue vs. supplements and soon – are decisions to be taken so as to extract the best mileage out of the selected media.Geographic AllocationIn view of the market priorities and the differential media objectives set for such market, how the media mix is to beused in order to allocate the advertising effort is explained in strategic terms.Scheduling StrategyThe extent and spacing of the media activity in a time frame is expostulated. Rationales for controlling the continiutyof the exposures are also provided. These are dependent upon various factors drawn from various backgroundanalysis done earlier on seasonality, competitive advertising, budgetary considerations, brand purchase cycle and soon.Any other factor which is of strategic media significance and is believed to have a positive impact on the success of themedia plan also needs to be highlighted in the Media strategy statement.Example 9
    • Brand X is "a cough tablet distributed nationally, with a concentration in Maharashtra. Target audience: Men 18-45 years with an income of Rs 750 + per month, residing in urban areas, smokers who seek temporary relief by consuming brand X. Creative is based on Audio-Visual demonstration of product in use. The role of advertising is to keep the product at a.’Top-of-mind’ recall level since it is an impulse purchase product. Media Strategy Statement Given the target group exposure, the role of Advertising and the national coverage requirement, Television emerges as the most cost efficient and effective medium. While National Television is to be used to provide for a national coverage, regional inputs for priority market of Maharashtra would be to provide with the use of the regional Television network. Programmes with consistent Men viewership would be chosen. Continuous advertising cannot be provided due to budgetary limitations, hence a ‘PULSE ‘scheduling strategy is to be employed to maintain a perception of consistent presence. By-Pooja Gurwani Media Operations Media Budgeting Every business, whether a Fortune 500 company or the business youve started at your kitchen table, invests in media in one form or another. From print advertising and commercials to stationery and business cards, media is what businesses depend on to get their message out. Understanding where your business spends its media dollars is critical to making effective spending decisions. What a Media Budget Includes• Typical media budgets include funds for online, print and broadcast advertising; interactive social media; consultants fees; brochures, booklets or videos; equipment or software required to produce company media; and all production costs related to media content creation. How Media Budgets Are Set• Media budgets are generally established in one of four ways. First, a budget may be set when an owner or executive arbitrarily chooses a figure that constitutes media spending for the year. Second, a media budget may be pegged to a companys sales, with a certain percentage of sales dedicated to media spending. Third, media spending may be based on the amount of money spent on media by competing businesses. And finally, a media budget may be determined by making reasonable assumptions from data about what will be required to reach the desired market or sales results. Who Controls the Media Budget• In smaller companies, media budgets are under the control of the companys owner or CEO, who generally oversees every part of the companys budget and approves all major purchases. In larger companies with marketing departments, the media budget may be controlled by a media or advertising director, or by a vice-president of marketing or advertising. Spending may also be directed by a media buyer, whose job is to purchase media, especially advertising, at the best possible price. How the Media Budget is Allocated• How a companys media budget is allocated depends on such factors as the companys overall marketing strategy, previous years allocations, previous investment in media-related equipment or production tools, past performance of the various media categories and how the company has been reaching its core demographics. The companys evolving product line and new or rising media outlets, such as new TV shows or print publications, may also influence media budget allocation. 10
    • How Media Budget Spending is Evaluated• Evaluating the effectiveness of media spending is notoriously difficult, since most customers are "touched" often and by different types of media before making a purchase. Whats more, the effect of media spending on intangible items such as branding, building customer loyalty and public relations, which do not directly promote sales, can only be assumed. However, advertising purchases -- one category of media spending -- are often evaluated based on how customers rate the company or product, with future spending directed to those media outlets that seem to generate the most customers, or "leads." Setting a media budget for your advertising campaign can be tricky, especially for new companies. But as you track and measure the effectiveness of your advertising over time, you will get a better idea of how much to budget to generate the business you need. By-Pooja Gurwani Spending too little on your advertising campaign will cost you more than spending too much. You need to stay in front of your customers. A random or infrequent advertising campaign schedule equals wasted money. We can assist you with some industry guidelines, but as a general rule, we recommend that you at least match your direct competitors spending on advertising as a percentage of sales. If you want to grow your business, you will probably want to invest more than your competitors are spending as a percentage of sales. [20% more would be a minimum starting point]. In general, you will get a better response if you use more than one medium. A larger company will do better to spend money on some combination of print, mail, radio, Internet, outdoor, and/or television advertising than to spend the budget all in one place. For smaller companies, you will do better to spread your advertising campaign budget between print and direct mail to get the best return for your investment. But there are no hard rules in advertising. Much depends on your products or services, and the relative effectiveness of each type of media for delivering your specific message. Please read Using Media More Effectively and Advertising Planning for more specific ideas on what media to use. You will also get a better response if you run smaller, more frequent ads. Don’t trade frequency for a one-time big bang in your advertising campaign. Don’t trade frequency in print for a less frequent television schedule. Here are some of the methods companies use to set their advertising campaign budgets. 1. The Percent of Sales Method: The advertising campaign budget is a constant percentage of desired sales. A car manufacturer may spend less than 1% of sales, while a small retailer may budget 3 -7% of sales. A jewelry store may budget 8 -12% of sales, and other companies may budget 20% or more. This method works as long as the advertising campaign budget is set as a percentage of desired sales. If the budget is set to actual sales, and sales drop, you do not want to cut your advertising campaign budget, or you will get caught in a downward spiral. 2. The Task Objective Method: How much money do you need to spend to reach the specific goals you have outlined for the advertising campaign? This is especially effective when you are starting out, or if you are trying to grow rapidly. Some advertising campaign strategies call for heavy spending upfront in order to win long-term customers. 3. The Historical Method: How much did you spend to reach your sales goals in previous years or periods? You will find that by tracking your ads, you will know in advance what you need to do to accomplish your goals. 11
    • 4. Share of Market - Share of Voice: This method links market share to advertising expenditure. A company with a20% market share would spend slightly more than 20% of the total advertising dollars spent in the market for thatproduct or service. For new companies, expenditures would be 1.5 times the desired market share until that positionis attained. [So if you want 20% market share, you spend 30% of total advertising dollars in that market until you getit].5. Competitive Parity: With competitive parity you spend in equal amounts to your competitors as a percentage ofmarket share. This is a self-defense method of budgeting marketing and advertising expenditures.6. The Combination Method: The best advertising campaign budget you can set will be based on somecombination of all of the previous models. You want to maintain a minimum level of advertising, fulfill specific goals,maintain your market share, keep up with your competitors, and compare everything to last year. By-Pooja Gurwani Media SellingMedia selling involves the art and science use of perception, imagination, emotions, and physical sensations of tomake sales in the selling of radio, television and the print industry.Media buying and selling helps in purchasing space and running time for the advertisments.This help you to select the kind of mediawhich directly hit to targeted audience .Right media space is very important for every advertisement so that it easily reach to thepeople.The media industry is a fast-moving and ever-changing sector that relies on the ability of its sales people to sell a given medium asthe solution that will connect them with their target audiences. This could mean selling into a single medium such as a localnewspaper or magazine for a few hundred pounds or selling high-value packages worth tens of thousands across a portfolio ofmedia, such as ambient media (e.g. supermarket receipts, floor signs), radio, internet, billboards, cinema, trade publications, taxis,trains, tube stations or digital media.It is your job to develop new leads, cold call potential clients, manage existing customer relationships and close the deal, eitherover the telephone or in person, with the aim of maximising sales revenues, increasing your client portfolio and hitting targets.The role of a media salesperson is a challenging, one especially in light of the plethora of media options that advertisers can choosefrom. But as Maurice Saatchi, the man heralded as the guru of the advertising industry, said: “People do not know what they wantuntil a brilliant person shows them.” Media InnovationsThe media is being assaulted by change at an ever-increasing rate and, therefore, the need for creativity andinnovation has never been great. In fact, John Kao in his book Jamming: The Art and Discipline of BusinessCreativity refers to the present as The Age of Creativity. Kao writes, “The business world is already launched on a newquest. The ancient pursuits—for capital, for raw materials, for process technology—remains eternal. But nowbusiness seeks a new advantage—delicate and dangerous, and absolutely vital—the creativity advantage.”Innovation and creativity are inextricably linked. First, what is creativity? James Adams in hisbook ConceptualBlockbusting, wrote, “Creativity has sometimes been called the combination of seeminglydisparate parts into afunctioning and useful whole.”Teresa Amabile in a groundbreaking study definedcreativity as follows: “A response will be judged as creative to theextent that (a) it is both a novel andappropriate, useful, or valuable response to the task at hand and (b) the task isheuristic rather thanalgorithmic.” A heuristic is an incomplete guideline or rule of thumb that can lead to learning ordiscovery when there is no clear path or formula. An algorithm is a complete mechanical rule for solving a problem ordealing with a situation. Finally, many creativity theorists have also noted that “problem discovery is an importantpart of much creative activity.” 12
    • More simply, creativity is solving a practical problem in a new way. A bunch of monkeys throwing different coloredpaint on a canvas might produce something that looks interesting, or even look like a Jackson Pollock painting, but itwouldn’t be creative because the monkeys didn’t start out trying to solve a problem. Pollock did; he wanted hispaintings to show his gestures and to create a response from a painting’s viewers without using any concrete images.When Pablo Picasso and George Braque invented cubism, they were trying to show a third dimension on a two-dimensional surface, so they attempted to paint both the top and the bottom of a table in a picture. They were tryingto solve a problem. Scientists, engineers, and chemists can be creative, because they not only discover problems butalso come up with practical solutions. Creativity is very practical because it is the art of problem solving.What is innovation? Innovation is applied creativity—the working solution. However, usually an innovation requireschanging—throwing out the old and trying something new. As Picasso said, “Every act of creation is first of all an actof destruction.” By-Pooja GurwaniInnovation is something that every organization needs today. This need is doubly assured for the domain of media,communication and entertainment. No content of media or its delivery etc can survive with the audiences withoutconstant innovations.Major innovations in contemporary media hover around CONVERGENCE in every sphere of media functioning:consumption, ownership, content creation, marketing and delivery.People consuming media are doing it through all vehicles: offline, on-air, on-ground, and very fast online. Peopleadvertising in media are asking for integrated media solutions, with their ads or advertorial messages appearingacross all media vehicles. People owning media are now becoming multi-media barons to have synergy at thework-place and market-place, both. Technologies are converging on one platform. Alongside, skill-sets are alsoconverging within the top media professionals. Good examples are Washington Post, Zee Group, BBC or theTimes of India Group.The second innovation, also emanating from the first, is about DIGITIZATION of media and entertainment. Themetamorphosis of the Digital Dawn has just started in Asian media markets, whereas it is in a matured stage in theWestern markets.For example, in the Indian context, the three iconic media moments of 2011 were the victory in the World CupCricket, the Anna Hazare led anti corruption movement, and the Kolaveri Di song went viral overnight. All threewere aided and abetted by a fast expanding media going digital.Registering a growth of 12% in 2011, the USD 16 billion Indian M&E industry is now digitizing at every level: digitaltelevision distribution, print media putting in place new media content and digital delivery platforms, cinemaproduction and exhibition going digital in one-third of the screens, animating/VFX/gaming gaining sharp growth,and digital advertising and PR recording high growth this year.The third innovation we need to look at is the ENGAGEMENT strategy as opposed to interactive and entertainmentstrategy. The ever younger evolved media consumer today needs to be engaged, and not merely entertained,informed or interacted with. It is the age of user generated content, user friendly devices (tablets and gamingdevices), more touch points to engage the audiences, going regional, and getting more niche content acrossmultiple platforms. Ra.One versus Paan Singh Tomar/ Kahaani is a good case-study. CirculationCirculation (How far the publication is reaching) Print advertising prices are based on the circulation of the publication in question. Publications will quote an advertiser a circulation figure based on paid subscribers. The audited circulation figures are verified by monitoring organizations. The publications will try to convince the advertiser that actual circulation is higher by including the free copies they distribute and the pass-along readership they claim. Sometimes these claims of "bonus" circulation are valid—for example, magazines distributed on airlines get at least eight readers per copy. Still, advertisers should be wary of inflated circulation figures.When youve finished one section, you will have an overview and the tools you need to create a media plan for yourbusiness. Lets start with basic vocabulary. The term youll hear most often is CPM, or cost per thousand. CPManalysis is the method media buyers use to convert various rate and circulation options to relative terms. CPMrepresents the cost of reaching one thousand people via different types of media. To calculate CPM, you find the costfor an ad, then divide it by the total circulation the ad reaches (in thousands). By finding this information andcalculating this cost for each of your options, you can give them a numerical ranking for comparison. CPM is a basicmedia concept.Cost Per Thousand (CPM) 13
    • Cost Per Thousand (CPM) allows a media planner to compare media based on two variables: audience and cost.CPM is used as a comparative device. The lowest cost per thousand medium is the most efficient, all other variablesbeing equal. Oftentimes the media with the lowest cost per thousand are selected, but not always. CPM may becomputed for a printed page or broadcast time, and the audience base may be either circulation, homes reached,readers, or number of audience members of any kind of demographic or product usage classification. • 1. For print media (when audience data are not available): CPM = Cost of 1 ad x 1000 Circulation Because many print media do not have audience research data, this formula is often used. By-Pooja Gurwani • 2. For print media (when audience data is available): CPM = Cost of 1 ad x 1000 Number of prospects reached • 3. For broadcast media (based on homes reached by a given program or time period): CPM = Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial) x 1000 Number of homes reached by a given program or time period • 4. For broadcast media (when audience data is available): CPM = Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial) x 1000 Number of prospects reached by a given program or time period • 5. For newspaper (when cost of ad is known): CPM = Cost of ad x 1000 CirculationPrint advertising prices are based on the circulation of the publication in question. Publications will quote you acirculation figure based on paid subscribers. The audited circulation figures are verified by monitoring organizations.The publications will try to convince you that actual circulation is higher by including the free copies they distributeand the pass-along readership they claim. Sometimes these claims of "bonus" circulation are valid--for example,magazines distributed on airlines get at least eight readers per copy. Still, you should be wary of inflated circulationfigures. 14
    • Audience is the equivalent of circulation when youre talking about broadcast media. Audience size varies throughoutthe day as people tune in and tune out. Therefore, the price for advertising at different times of day will vary, basedon the audience size that the day-part delivers.Penetration is related to circulation. Penetration describes how much of the total market available you are reaching. Ifyou are in a town with a demographic count of 200,000 households, and you buy an ad in a coupon book that statesa circulation of 140,000, youre reaching 70 percent of the possible market--high penetration. If, instead, you boughtan ad in the city magazine, which goes to only 17,000 subscribers (households), your penetration would be muchless--8.5 percent. What degree of penetration is necessary for you depends on whether your strategy is to dominatethe market or to reach a certain niche within that market.Reach and frequency are key media terms used more in broadcast than in print. Reach is the total number of peopleexposed to a message at least once in a set time period, usually four weeks. (Reach is the broadcast equivalent ofcirculation, for print advertising.) Frequency is the average number of times those people are exposed during that By-Pooja Gurwanitime period. To make reach go up, you buy a wider market area. To make frequency go up, you buy more ads duringthe time period. Usually, when reach goes up, you have to compromise and let frequency go down. You could spenda lot of money trying to achieve a high reach and a high frequency. The creative part of media planning comes inbalancing reach, frequency, and budget constraints to find the best combination in view of your marketing goals. Unit-1.2 Factors affecting Media PlanThe media plan which is derived from the marketingand advertising plan has set a broad framework for mediadecisions. The execution of this plan dependsupon the following considerations:1. Budget: A choice of media will depend to a largeextent upon the size of the advertising budget.Certainmedia types may betoo expensive for the funds available. For example: the cost of nationaltransmission over Doordarshan may be toohigh for an advertiser. The cost of maintaining a neon signcannot be afforded by small budget advertisers.2. Competitor’s Strategy: Media decisions of oneadvertiser are influenced by the competitor’s strategy.Some years ago only large advertisersused televisionin India. But with the runaway success of Nirmadetergent,manufacturers large or small usedtelevisionto gain maximum exposure, with the hopeof creating another success story.An advertiser tries to reach the same audience as itscompetitors. He may also attempt to find specifictargetgroups not reached by his competitors. Inboth these caseshe considers his competitor’sstrategy before deciding his media mix.3. Frequency v/s Reach.As explained in the earlier section, frequency and reach are importantconsiderations in the media plan. Frequencyrefers tothe number of times the advertiser reaches the sameperson, while reach refers to the total number of peoplecovered.The greater the frequency withwhich you reach the same person through mediaselection, smaller the reachwill be and vice –versa (assuming a limitation in the size of thebudget).An advertiser will need to know thequantitative data about media audience in order tomake more accuratefrequency and reach decisions.For example: If an advertiser uses radio, he may beable to afford to broadcast the advertising jingle every30 minutes,and this increases the frequency of theradio listeners exposure to the advertised message.But the reach of thismessage is limited and will notcover those who are not listening to the radio. Withthe same budget, the advertiser canbuy less radiotime, place a few insertions in the print media and buysome television time. This combination willreduce thefrequency at which an individual consumer is exposedto the advertised message but will increase itsreach.Thus, 15
    • there is always a trade-off between thesetwo considerations.4. Increasing distributors’ support:Althoughconsumer media are selected primarily to affect theconsumer, the impact of media upondistributionchannels, that is the middlemen, is also important.Effective use of advertising media lends support tothemiddlemen’s selling efforts. Middlemen are morelikely to support a brand that has greater exposure inthe local media.Retailer sometimes runs their owntie-in advertising along with the producer’sadvertisement, in the same media.5. Continuity:A decision must be made about howlong an advertisement campaign should be run onone media. There isa cumulative advantage fromcontinuity, as a greater audience will be reached inTerms of both frequency andcoverage by advertisements continually placed in one medium.The same medium will have somenew audience. For products such as toothpaste, soaps, that arefrequently re-purchased, continuity is amoreimportant consideration. But products that arepurchased infrequently may find it more suitabletouse a variety of media in order to reach variedaudience. For example: the ads of Sintex water tanks. By-Pooja Gurwani6. Flexibility:The ability of the media to adapt tochanging and specific needs of advertisers isflexibility. Certain mediaallows such flexibility with respect to the advertised message, the geographicalcoverage and the adbudget For example: the timesof India group of publication may offer advertisers theflexibility of placingads in different editions of thepaper. So if, for instance, Parle’s find that competitiveactivity hasincreased in Delhi, it may use the Delhiedition of Times of India to combat competitor’sactivity.7. Franchise Position:Advertisers using aparticular medium over a period of time may enjoyspecialfranchise positions. Special pagepositions in magazines and newspapers may bereserved for them.For example: The back page of Business India may be booked by Bajaj Auto whilethe inside back cover ofIndia Today may be bookedon a long term basis by Wills Filter Cigarettes.8. Standard of Acceptance and Codes of Ethics: Most media vehicles have codes of ethics that setthe standards of acceptance.9. Cost per Thousand:This is the most importantconsideration while making media decisions. Althoughthe cost is consideredwhile fixing the budget, theconcept of cost per thousand is the accepted norm for measuring the mediaeffectiveness. The formula for computing cost per thousand is equal to Price of themedium to theadvertiser/Delivered audience (inthousands).This formula has certain limitations. The deliveredaudiencemay not be the same as the prospectivecustomers. Adjustments to arrive at the prospectivecustomersare possible but this is not always easy tocompute. Secondly, there is no data available to findoutwhether the delivered audience has actually seenor heard the advertised message.10. Creative considerations:Creativeconsiderations such as the quality of reproduction, thecolour effect, special effects, have to beconsidered.The medium must be appropriate for the ad message.For example: The ads for ice creamwould be reproduced better in colour and therefore black and white newsprint is not appropriate.Media decisions have to be made in consultation with the creative team that has actually produced thead. Within themedium selected, decisions related to unit buying, isalso influenced by the creative team.There is a constant tug-of-war between the creative team andthe media team . the creative team wantslarger space, more TV and radio time and superior quality of POP material, while the media team alongwith thefinance department of the client looks for economy and maximizing the effect of every rupeespent on the media.11. The medium and Target Consumer Match:Themedia mix has to reach the target consumer. It theadvertiser wants to reach men between 25 and55who are professional, the Economic Times will beobviously a more appropriate choice than Femina.Butsometimes matching consumer profiles with mediacharacteristics becomes a lot more difficult.For example: Media planners will find it difficult to decidewhich kind of households can be reached by 16
    • the Hindifeature film TV slot v/s the 9 O’clock serial slot. Athorough analysis of the target market willhelp inmaking this match and will reduce wastage of mediaexpenditure.12. Language:In India this is an importantconsideration and depending upon which a particular ethic group has to bereached a particular languagenewspaper, or television and radio programme mustbe used.13. Prestige of media: It is said that the prestige of the advertising medium is transferred totheadvertised product. When an ad appears in times ofIndia, the image of the newspaper is transferred to theproduct andthis helps in building the brand image.Sponsorship of prestigious programme such asthe Oscar awards,Grammy awards, World Cupmatches, are also considered prestigiousadvertising opportunities.14. The Editorial Environmental: By-Pooja GurwaniSince thebroadcast media , that is the radio and TV media, aregovernment controlled, they arenot perceived tohave independent editorial policies. But the printmedia enjoys the freedom of pressand eachpublication has its individual editorial philosophy. Theeditorial environment in turn influencesreader profile.Advertisers would like to place their ads in publicationhaving an appropriate editorialenvironment. For instance, the ads of political parties have appeared invarious newspapers while theads promoting brandname of liquor tend to use men’s magazines as their vehicles.15. Nature of the product or services and natureof the market to be covered:Some products haveniche markets and a special direct advertisingmedium will be suitable for them.For example:Detergents for washing machines can be used onlyby people having washing machines,but dailyconsumer products have a wider market and hencemay use mass media.The geographicalextent of the market has also to beconsidered. Is the market local, national orinternational for example: The ads of Air India willappear both in national media as well asinternationalmagazines and other media. But the ads of IndianAirlines will probably use only nationalmedia.16. Availability of Media Time and Space:Mediatime and space have to be booked in advance. Whenan announcement is to be madeimmediately, theadvertiser has little choice but use the available mediatime and space. Most popularmedia slots have to bebooked months in advance. Media buying hasbecome an important componentof media planningdue to the cost constraints and increase incompetitive activity. 17
    • 18 By-Pooja Gurwani