networking

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basics of networking, networking topology

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networking

  1. 1. NETWORKING SUBMITTED BY:- POOJA DHIMAN
  2. 2. <ul><li>Networking is a practice of linking of two or more computing devices such as PCs printers etc. with each other connections between two devices is through physical media or logical media to share the information, data and resources. Network are made with hardware and software. </li></ul>cable / media computer networking NETWORKING
  3. 3. <ul><li>Model means connectivity of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of networking models </li></ul><ul><li>Client – server model :- In a client server model we have one server and many clients. A client can share the resources of server, but a server cannot share the resources on client. </li></ul>MODELS OF NETWORKING
  4. 4. SERVER MODEL CLIENT
  5. 5. <ul><li>In peer to peer model all computers are in equal status, that is we cannot manage centralization, administration security. </li></ul>PEER TO PEER MODEL
  6. 6. <ul><li>It is a mixture of client and peer to peer model. </li></ul><ul><li>Client can share their resources as peer to peer but with the permission of the server as in server model. </li></ul><ul><li>It is commonly used model because in this security is more as we put restriction on both server and clients. </li></ul>DOMAIN MODEL
  7. 7. <ul><li>Local area network (LAN). </li></ul><ul><li>It is restricted to a small area such as home, </li></ul><ul><li>Offices or colleges. HUB & SWITCHE are </li></ul><ul><li>used in LAN. </li></ul>CATEGORIES OF NETWORK
  8. 8. <ul><li>Campus Area Network (CAN). </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of two or more LANs with in limited area. All the computers which are connected together have some relationship to each other e.g different buildings in a campus can be connected using different CAN. </li></ul>CAN
  9. 9. <ul><li>3 . Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). </li></ul><ul><li>MAN is the interconnection of networks in the city. It also formed by connecting remote LANs through telephone lines. </li></ul><ul><li>MAN support data and voice transmission. e.g cable T.V network in the city. </li></ul>MAN
  10. 10. <ul><li>4 . Wide Area Network (WAN). </li></ul><ul><li>It covers a wide geographical area which includes the multiple computers or LANs. </li></ul><ul><li>ROUTER devices is used in WAN. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Network Topology describe the way in which the elements of network are connected. </li></ul><ul><li>They describe the physical arrangement of the network nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers and other peripherals etc. </li></ul>TOPOLOGY
  12. 12. <ul><li>Single Node Topology </li></ul><ul><li>BUS Topology </li></ul><ul><li>STAR Topology </li></ul><ul><li>RING Topology </li></ul><ul><li>TREE Topology </li></ul><ul><li>MESH Topology </li></ul><ul><li>HYBRID Topology </li></ul>KIND OF TOPOLOGY
  13. 13. <ul><li>The server and host is heaving all the information for network. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes a single device which is connected to the server. </li></ul><ul><li>The server is the main device used for network data storage. </li></ul>SINGLE NODE TOPOLOGY
  14. 14. Single node topology
  15. 15. <ul><li>Easy to install. </li></ul><ul><li>Least expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Single cable is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Only single device is connected in the entire network. </li></ul>Advantages Disadvantages
  16. 16. <ul><li>All the nodes on a bus topology are connected by one single cable. </li></ul><ul><li>A bus topology consist of main run of cable with terminators at each ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular on LAN’s because they are expensive and easy to install. </li></ul>BUS TOPOLOGY
  17. 17. BUS TOPOLOGY
  18. 18. <ul><li>Require less cable as compared to star topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Less expensive than other topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Work better for the small network. </li></ul><ul><li>Entire network gets affected if there is a break in the main cable. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to detect the faulty device. </li></ul>Advantages Disadvantages
  19. 19. <ul><li>Each nodes are connected to a central device called hub. </li></ul><ul><li>Hub takes a signal that comes from any nodes & passes it along to all the other nodes in the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Data passes through hub before reaching at its destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Hub or switches manages n control the function of network. </li></ul><ul><li>In it chances of failure reduce because the use of hub. </li></ul>STAR TOPOLOGY
  20. 20. STAR TOPOLOGY
  21. 21. <ul><li>Easy to install and manage. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple in use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is widely used. </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Hub failure leads to network failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased devices makes the network slow. </li></ul>Advantages Disadvantages
  22. 22. <ul><li>In a ring topology each devices has exactly two adjacent device for communication purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Message travel through ring in same direction. </li></ul><ul><li>To implement a ring network we use TOKEN ring technology. </li></ul>RING TOPOLOGY
  23. 23. RING TOPOLOGY
  24. 24. <ul><li>Easy to manage then BUS topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Good communications over long distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Handle high volume of traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>The failure of a single node of the network can cause entire network to fail. </li></ul><ul><li>More cable of wire required. </li></ul>Advantages Disadvantages
  25. 25. <ul><li>In the tree topology groups of star network are connected to linear Bus backbone. </li></ul><ul><li>This particularly helpful for colleges, universities or schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Point to point connections are possible in the tree topology. </li></ul>TREE TOPOLOGY
  26. 26. TREE TOPOLOGY
  27. 27. <ul><li>Point to point wiring for each device. </li></ul><ul><li>Use for the large network. </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive than other topology. </li></ul><ul><li>Fail in backbone affects the entire network. </li></ul>Advantages Disadvantage
  28. 28. <ul><li>Each node is connected to every other node in the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement mesh topology expensive and difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>While the data is traveling on the mesh network it is automatically configured to reach the destination by taking the shortest route which means the lest numbers of hobs. </li></ul>MESH TOPOLOGY
  29. 30. <ul><li>Entire network does not affected by one faulty device. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide redundant paths which helps in sending data using an alternate path if a specific path fails sending the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Very expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>More cabling is required. </li></ul>Advantages Disadvantages
  30. 31. <ul><li>It is combination of different network topology. It is also known as special topology. </li></ul><ul><li>It always accrues when two different basic network topologies are connected. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for corporate offices to link their LANs together while adding networks through wide area network. </li></ul>HYBRID TOPOLOGY
  31. 32. HYBRID TOPOLOGY
  32. 33. <ul><li>Easy to detect and remove faulty device. </li></ul><ul><li>More flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>Handle large traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>More cabling is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive then other topologies. </li></ul>Asvantages Disadvantages
  33. 34. <ul><li>Set of rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Two devices on a network to successfully communicate, the must both understood the same protocols. </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP- transmission control protocol internet – it is most commonly used set of rules. </li></ul>Protocols
  34. 35. <ul><li>Every signals that sends & receive the data must have specific address called MAC address. </li></ul><ul><li>MAC address is a 12 digit hexadecimal number. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be written in any one of the formats. </li></ul><ul><li>00:11:11:EA:8D:F6 </li></ul><ul><li>00-11-11-EC-8D-F6 </li></ul>MAC ADDRESS
  35. 36. <ul><li>32 bit long. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains 4 octets. </li></ul><ul><li>Dot(.) is used to separate one octet from another. </li></ul><ul><li>IP ADDRESS </li></ul><ul><li>Network ID Host ID </li></ul><ul><li>(shared by network ) (unique to every device) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.- 134.56.33.44 </li></ul><ul><li>134.56.145.36 </li></ul>IP ADDRESS
  36. 37. <ul><li>Class A- network. host. host. host </li></ul><ul><li>Class B- network. network. host. host </li></ul><ul><li>Class C- network. network. network. host </li></ul><ul><li>Class D & Class E indicate network ID. </li></ul><ul><li>IP address exit from </li></ul><ul><li>0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE:- IP address may vary in time for one device. The MAC address or hardware address is “branded” on the device by the manufacture. IP+MAC address together to ensure proper identification of a device. </li></ul>CLASSES OF IP ADDRESS
  37. 38. THANKYOU

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