Chetan C Patange Asst Prof (SVERI’s COE, Pandharpur. MBA Dept.) Job AnalysisDefinition: Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties andrequirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process wherejudgements are made about data collected on a job.A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills,outcomes, and work environment of a particular job.The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of theJob, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews orquestionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description ofthe person.Purpose of Job AnalysisThe purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the job relatedness of employment proceduressuch as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.Determining Training NeedsJob Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop:
training content assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training equipment to be used in delivering the training methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...)CompensationJob Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine: skill levels compensable job factors work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort) responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory) required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)Selection ProceduresJob Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop: job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions; appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate; minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants; interview questions; selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations); applicant appraisal/evaluation forms; orientation materials for applicants/new hiresPerformance ReviewBased on the job requirements identified in the job analysis, the company decides a training program.Training is given in those areas which will help to improve the performance on the job. Similarly whenappraisal is conducted we check whether the employee is able to work in a manner in which we requirehim to do the job.Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop: goals and objectives performance standards evaluation criteria length of probationary periods duties to be evaluatedOrganizational structure and design :-Job analysis helps the organization to make suitable changes in the organizational structure, so that itmatches the needs and requirements of the organization. Duties are either added or deleted from the job.Job evaluation :-Job evaluation refers to studying in detail the job performance by all individual. The difficulty levels,skills required and on that basis the salary is fixed. Information regarding qualities required, skilled levels,difficulty levels are obtained from job analysis.
Promotions and transfer:-When we give a promotion to an employee we need to promote him on the basis of the skill and talentrequired for the future job. Similarly when we transfer an employee to another branch the job must bevery similar to what he has done before. To take these decisions we collect information from job analysis.Career path planning:-Many companies have not taken up career planning for their employees. This is done to prevent theemployee from leaving the company. When we plan the future career of the employee, information willbe collected from job analysis. Hence job analysis becomes important or advantageous.Labor relations:-When companies plan to add extra duties or delete certain duties from a job, they require the help of jobanalysis, when this activity is systematically done using job analysis the number of problems with unionmembers reduce and labour relations improve.Health and safety :-Most companies prepare their own health and safety, plans and programs based on job analysis. From thejob analysis company identifies the risk factor on the job and based on the risk factor safety equipmentsare provided.Acceptance of job offer :-When a person is given an offer/appointment letter the duties to be performed by him are clearlymentioned in it, this information is collected from job analysis, which is why job analysis becomesimportant.A personnel manger carries analysis in two ways : a. Job description b. Job specification JOB DESCRIPTION is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job. The preparation of job description is very important before a vacancy is advertised. It tells in brief the nature and type of job. A job description sets out the purpose of a job, where the job fits into the organisation structure, the main accountabilities and responsibilities of the job and the key tasks to be performed. This type of document is descriptive in nature and it constitutes all those facts which are related to a job such as : 1. Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern. 2. Organisational Location of job. 3. Supervision given and received 4. Materials, tools, machinery and equipment worked with 5. The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job. 6. The nature of authority- responsibility relationships.
7. Salary levels: Pay, DA, other allowances, incentives, bonus, method of payment, hours of work etc. 8. Necessary qualifications that are required for job. 9. Promotional chances and channels. 10. Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern. 11. The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in performance of that job.JOB SPECIFICATION is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which helpsto perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a jobcan be performed in a better manner.Job specifications, also known as man or employee specifications, is prepared on the basis of jobspecification. It specifies the qualities required in a job incumbent for the effective performance of thejob.Basic contents of a job specification are as follows:The best job descriptions do not limit employees, but rather, cause them to stretch their experience, grow their skills, and developtheir ability to contribute within their organization1. Personal characteristics such as education, job experience, age, sex, and extra co-curricular activities.2. Physical characteristics such as height, weight, chest, vision, hearing, health, voice poise, and handand foot coordination, (for specific positions only).3. Mental characteristics such as general intelligence, memory, judgment, foresight, ability toconcentrate, etc.4. Social and psychological characteristics such as emotional ability, flexibility, manners, drive,conversational ability, interpersonal ability, attitude, values, creativity etc.Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position. The contents are : 12. Job title and designation 13. Educational qualifications for that title 14. Physical and other related attributes 15. Physique and mental health 16. Special attributes and abilities 17. Maturity and dependability 18. Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.From the above advantages, we can justify the importance of job analysis and it’s related products. Bothjob description as well as job specification are important for personnel manager in personnel managementfunction. Therefore, job analysis is considered to be the primary tool of personnel management.Methods of Job AnalysisSeveral methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:There are different methods used by organization to collect information and conduct the job analysis.These methods are
1. Personal observation :-In this method the observer actually observes the concerned worker. He makes a list of all the dutiesperformed by the worker and the qualities required to perform those duties based on the informationcollected, job analysis is prepared.2. Actual performance of the job :-In this method the observer who is in charge of preparing the job analysis actually does the work himself.This gives him an idea of the skill required, the difficulty level of the job, the efforts required etc.3. Interview method :-In this method an interview of the employee is conducted. A group of experts conduct the interview. Theyask questions about the job, skilled levels, and difficulty levels. They question and cross question andcollect information and based on this information job analysis is prepared.4. Critical incident method :-In this method the employee is asked to write one or more critical incident that has taken place on the job.The incident will give an idea about the problem, how it was handled, qualities required and difficultylevels etc. critical incident method gives an idea about the job and its importance. (a critical meansimportant and incident means anything which takes place in the job)5. Questioner method :-In this method a questioner is provided to the employee and they are asked to answer the questions in it.The questions may be multiple choice questions or open ended questions. The questions decide howexactly the job analysis will be done. The method is effective because people would think twice beforeputting anything in writing.6. Log records :-Companies can ask employees to maintain log records and job analysis can be done on the basis ofinformation collected from the log record. A log record is a book in which employees record /write all theactivities performed by them on the job. The records are extensive as well as exhausted in nature andprovide a fair idea about the duties and responsibilities in any job.7. HRD records :-Records of every employee are maintained by HR department. The record contain details abouteducational qualification, name of the job, number of years of experience, duties handled, any mistakescommitted in the past and actions taken, number of promotions received, area of work, core competencyarea, etc. based on these records job analysis can be done.A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify jobduties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completedquestionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of theincumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and workenvironment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare ajob description and/or job specifications.
The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job,number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas: Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc. Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives. Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis. Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people. Requirements The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSAs than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.
Person Specification Example – Marketing Assistant Requirement Essential or Desirable? How Assessed?Qualifications / Education / Training: Degree level Essential Via application form Master degree DesirableExperience: Experience of working in a similar Essential Via application form and role Desirable interview Experience of writing Desirable communications, press releases Experience of dealing with advertising agenciesKnowledge: Knowledge of marketing Essential Via interview techniques and PR Desirable Knowledge of the relevant industrySkills & Competencies: Excellent communication skills, Essential Via written exercise particularly able to write in an engaging manner to suit a variety Essential Via ability test of audiences Essential Via in-tray exercise Ability to process and interpret Essential Via group exercise complex information Essential Via group exercise Strong prioritisation skills and Desirable Via role play ability to manage own workload Ability to work flexibly Team player Ability to negotiatePersonal Attributes: Self-motivated Essential Via interview Ability to make decisions and use Essential Via in-tray and interview own initiative Via written and group Desirable exercises Creative, comes up with ideas Via interview Desirable Prepared to learn new skillsOther: Ability to use Microsoft Word, Desirable Via interview Excel and Publisher Desirable Via interview Willing to participate in presentations
Job Description Example: Marketing Assistant Job Element DetailJob Title Marketing AssistantReporting To Marketing ManagerDepartment/Location Marketing Department, SwindonMain Purpose To plan and carry out marketing activities, so as to maintain and develop sales of company products to UK customers, in line with business plans. Plan and carry out marketing activities to agreed budgets, salesDuties & volumes, values, product mix and timescales.Responsibilities Develop and implement ideas for marketing to major customers. Develop and produce marketing communications and press releases. Plan and coordinate all trade show and event activities, ensuring plans are communicated to relevant personnel. Monitor and report on activities and provide relevant management information. Liaise with external agencies to carry out market research, competitor analysis and customer surveys. Liaise and attend meetings with other company departments as necessary to perform duties and aid the business development. Assist the Marketing Manager with managing the contracts with external agency and being a nominated point of contact Attend training and to develop relevant knowledge and skills. Maintain the computerised customer database.Scope or Scale Budget of £20,000 Database of 7,000 customers No direct reportsSalary & Benefits Salary: £18,000 per annum 25 days holiday Occupational pension scheme Life assurance Childcare vouchers
Person Specification Example – Marketing Assistant Requirement Essential or How Assessed? Desirable?Qualifications / Education / Training: Degree level Essential Via application form Master degree DesirableExperience: Experience of working in a similar role Essential Via application form Experience of writing communications, press releases and interview Experience of dealing with advertising agencies Desirable DesirableKnowledge: Knowledge of marketing techniques and PR Essential Via interview Knowledge of the relevant industry DesirableSkills & Competencies: Excellent communication skills, particularly able to write in an Essential Via written exercise engaging manner to suit a variety of audiences Ability to process and interpret complex information Strong prioritisation skills and ability to manage own workload Ability to work flexibly Essential Via ability test Team player Ability to negotiate Essential Via in-tray exercise Essential Via group exercise Essential Via group exercise Desirable Via role playPersonal Attributes: Self-motivated Essential Via interview Ability to make decisions and use own initiative Essential Via in-tray and Creative, comes up with ideas interview Via written and group Prepared to learn new skills Desirable exercises Via interview DesirableOther: Ability to use Microsoft Word, Excel and Publisher Desirable Via interview Willing to participate in presentations
Job Description Example Job Element DetailJob Title Marketing AssistantReporting To Marketing ManagerDepartment/Location Marketing Department, SwindonMain Purpose To plan and carry out marketing activities, so as to maintain and develop sales of company products to UK customers, in line with business plans.Duties & Responsibilities Plan and carry out marketing activities to agreed budgets, sales volumes, values, product mix and timescales. Develop and implement ideas for marketing to major customers. Develop and produce marketing communications and press releases. Plan and coordinate all trade show and event activities, ensuring plans are communicated to relevant personnel. Monitor and report on activities and provide relevant management information. Liaise with external agencies to carry out market research, competitor analysis and customer surveys. Liaise and attend meetings with other company departments as necessary to perform duties and aid the business development. Assist the Marketing Manager with managing the contracts with external agency and being a nominated point of contact Attend training and to develop relevant knowledge and skills. Maintain the computerised customer database.Scope or Scale Budget of £20,000 Database of 7,000 customers
No direct reportsSalary & Benefits Salary: £18,000 per annum 25 days holiday Occupational pension scheme Life assurance Childcare vouchers