Psychological Disorders Presentation BEH 225 April 14, 2011
Welcome class! Thank you for joining me. Today we are going to discuss the various types of psychological disorders and some of the symptoms that accompany these disorders. We will cover the most common disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders. We will also go into some other disorders such as sexual disorder and personality disorder. We will discuss the known causes of these disorders and some of the possible treatments. Let’s get started!
The most common mood disorder is depression. Those that suffer with depression often feel overwhelmed with sadness; they will often feel tired, helpless, and worthless. In extreme cases of depression a person can even become suicidal. Mania is another mood disorder in which sufferers feel euphoric, as though they have superpowers. They are often talkative, very active, they are very easily distracted. A person who is bipolar has a combination of mania and depression, These moods alternate from extreme highs to extreme lows. They rarely feel “normal”. Causes of these mood disorders are thought to be from either biological factors or psychological factors, or a combination of both. Biological factors could be hereditary and possibly be a result of a chemical imbalance in the brain. The psychological factors could be a result of a traumatic experience, or any other experience leaving a person with a negative self-concept. Medications and therapy are the most common treatments for mood disorders. (Morris & Maisto).
Anxiety is a disorders that affects many people, leaving them with a feeling of uneasiness, and overwhelming fear or worry. There are four types of Anxiety Disorders they are as follows; Specific Phobias (spiders, being alone, tight places, being in a crowded place and so on), Panic Disorders, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder). A specific phobia is a very intense fear of something specific, leading a person to go out of their way to avoid what they are afraid of. Fear of heights is an example of a specific phobia. Panic disorder is another type of anxiety disorder. Panic attacks can be unpredictable and can come on for no apparent reason. “During a panic attack, a person may have feelings of impending doom, chest pain, dizziness or fainting, sweating, difficulty breathing, and a fear of losing control or dying” (Morris & Maisto). Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by a prolonged fear that is not attached to a specific object or circumstance. Symptoms include restlessness, muscle tension and difficulty sleeping. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized as obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors that seem to be beyond a person’s control. These anxiety disorders may be inherited. Anxiety disorders are learned behaviors that may be a result of frightening experiences. Treatment usually involves medication and/or therapy. (Morris & Maisto).
Psychosomatic disorders are real physical illnesses that result from an existing psychological condition. An example of a physical illness that can result from a psychological condition would be tension headaches. Stress and/or anxiety can induce tension headaches and muscle tension. Psychological factors are thought to contribute to the development of some other physical illnesses, such as a cold or flu, because they can weaken the immune system. Treatment of psychosomatic disorders vary with each kind of illness. Existing psychological conditions can also alter health behavior. This behavior according to Axia reading, “includes positive actions such as eating a balanced diet and exercising as well as such negative activities as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption” (Morris & Maisto).
Somatoform disorders are described as apparent physical symptoms with no evidence of an actual physical illness. Treatments are hard to determine because there is no evidence of a real physical illness. The most common symptoms include back pains, dizziness, partial paralysis, abdominal pains, and sometimes anxiety and depression. Somatoform disorders are believed to be caused by unconscious processes that are unknown. (Morris & Maisto, 2002).
Dissociative disorders are mental disorders in which part of a person’s personality feels somehow disconnected, or dissociated, from the rest of the person. Dissociative amnesia is one type of dissociative disorder where a person has either partial or total memory loss likely due to stressful experiences. Dissociative identity disorder is a disorder in which sufferers have, “several distinct personalities that emerge at different times” (Morris & Maisto). The personalities are generally extremely different from one another. Depersonalization disorder is when a person feels as if they are not in ones body, or is having an “out of body”. Exact causes of dissociative disorders are unknown, however, it is believed that biological factors may play a role. Drugs such as LSD are also thought to play a role in some cases. (Morris & Maisto).
Sexual disorders are abnormal sexual behaviors and dysfunctions. The three main types of sexual disorders are: sexual dysfunction, paraphilia's, and gender-identity disorders. Sexual dysfunction is described as, “the loss or impairment of the ordinary physical responses of sexual function” (Morris & Maisto). An example of this would be erectile dysfunction. Paraphilia's is a disorder that is characterized by using object or situations that wouldn’t normally be considered when having sex. Gender identity disorders may be described as a personal belief that one is or should be of the opposite sex. The exact causes of sexual disorders are unknown. Some sexual disorders can be treated with medication. (Morris & Maisto).
Today you have learned more about a few of the most common psychological disorders. Let’s do a quick recap. Mood disorders include depression, mania, and bipolar; the most common of which is depression. Anxiety Disorders that we covered were as follows; Specific Phobias (spiders, being alone, tight places, being in a crowded place and so on), Panic Disorders, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder). Most of the anxiety disorders can be treated with medication. Psychosomatic disorders are real physical illnesses that result from an existing psychological condition i.e. tension headaches. Somatoform disorders are described as apparent physical symptoms with no evidence of an actual physical illness. Dissociative disorders are mental disorders in which part of a person’s personality feels somehow disconnected, or dissociated, from the rest of the person. Dissociative disorders can involve memory loss and a change in identity. Sexual disorders are abnormal sexual behaviors and dysfunctions. The three main types of sexual disorders are: sexual dysfunction, paraphilia's, and gender-identity disorders. Thank you for joining me!
References: Morris, C. G., & Maisto, A. A.. Psychology: An introduction (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Retrieved April 2011 Google Images. (2011). http://images.google.com/
April 14, 2011
Psychosomatic and Somatoform disorders
Sadness, loss of interest, possibly suicidal
Euphoric feeling, talkative, extremely active
Bipolar-combination of mania and depression
Mania and depression alternate
Causes: biological factors and psychological
(Morris & Maisto)
Excessive fear of something specific
Panic attacks, overwhelming fear
Generalized anxiety disorder
Prolonged fear, restlessness, and muscle tension
Irrational behavior, severe anxiety
(Morris & Maisto)
Real physical illnesses
Result from psychological conditions
Induced by stress or anxiety (Morris & Maisto)
Weaken immune system
Alter health behavior
Physical symptoms without evidence of illness
Sufferers believe they are physically ill
Treatment can be challenging
Back pain, dizziness, partial paralysis
Unknown unconscious processes
Loss of memory from stressful experience
Dissociative identity disorder
Personalities emerge at different times (Morris & Maisto)
“Out of body” feeling
Impairment of sexual functions (Morris &
Unconventional sex objects or situations
Desire to be the opposite sex
No evidence of actual physical illness
i.e. erectile dysfunction
Google Images. (2011). http://images.google.com/
Morris, C. G., & Maisto, A. A. Psychology: An introduction
(12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Retrieved April 2011