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The End of the MINGTime was up for the Ming. Corruption, natural disasters and popular uprisingstook their toll on the Ming, but it was the invading Manchu rebellion that didthe Ming Empire in.As the Manchu invaded, someone opened the gates for the marauding rebels.The Chongzhen Emperor hung himself rather than face them.
EmperorQing Dynasty Kangxi is Born The Ming Dynasty fell in 1644 The Manchu then formed the last Dynasty of China, the Qing.
Look for: Chinese and Manchu script in theForbidden City
The Manchus were foreignerswho forced native Han Chinese to wear a pigtail which was forbidden to cut off.
Kangxi Emperor Reigned 1662-1722 The longest serving Emperor of ChinaExpanded borders by invading Tibet.Portrait of the Kangxi Emperor as a Young Man,Anonymous
Kangxi took 6 grand tours of his empire and had them immortalized in a grand set of hand scrolls. No Ming Emperor ever did.The Emperor would love to pose as a noble with servants and mingle to the people.
Qianlong Emperor Reigned 1736-96 • Revered his Grandfather • Retired as Emperor after 61 years to let Kangxi’s long serving record stand. • Expanded borders further • Also went on grand tour andInauguration Portrait of Qianlong (Detail) commissioned set of scrolls.Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shining), 1736
Chinese tea Like his Grandfather, Qianlong also enjoyed popping out in commoners’ drinkers say clothing to enjoy life’s simple pleasures without being recognized.‘thank you’ with One day, the Emperor and his companions (guards) went into a their fingers teahouse where, to remain anonymous, he took a turn at pouring tea for everyone on the table as good manners dictate. Rather than give his identity away by kowtowing to the Emperor, the guards used their fingers to represent the bow. Ever since, Chinese tea drinkers have used this gesture as an expression of gratitude to the friend who fills their teacups. For extra dining points while dining, it’s considered ultra-polite to offer to pour the first round.
Qianlong was an avid art collector. Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shih-ning) 1688-1766
Qianlong Emperor as the Bodhisattva Manjusri (Detail), face by Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shining)
“Journey Through Space” What the Kangxi and QianlongSouthern Inspection Tour Scrolls reveal about Chinese and Western Conceptions of SPACE Robert Ponzio Chair, Fine Arts Oak Hall School Gainesville, FL
Traditional Western One Point Perspective System Depictions of Space•Concerned with reproducing how the eye sees• Image has fixed edges•Organized based on receding vanishing points•Artist controls viewer vantage point Gentile Bellini’s “Procession in Piazza San Marco”, 1496
Traditional Chinese Depiction of Space Artist Wang Hui’s hand scrolls utilize traditional Chinese depictions of space.
The Hand Scroll Format
Traditional Chinese Maps:Experience of the journey is more important than Scale
Spatial Transition Point Spatial Transition Point
Mist / Transition- Kangxi Scroll 7 Working with the traditional Chinese conceptions of shifting space, Wang Hui utilizes a thick fog to fade out from one scene to the next. This creative means of transitioning impressed upon the viewer the perception of the passing of time.
Mist / Transition- Kangxi Scroll 7Elements of the landscape and architecture are subtly revealed as they peak out of the mist, allowing the viewer to gain a sense of traveling over a great distance. As the mist ultimately disappears, we then find ourselves in the next town.
Mist / Transition- Kangxi Scroll 3Wang Hui shows travelers disappearing into the mist as they embark upon a long journey…
Mist / Transition- Kangxi Scroll 3…they eventually reappear after an immeasurable passage of time and distance.
The Qianlong Scrolls:Showing Western Influence Giuseppe Castiglione, (Lang Shih-ning), 1688-1766 Introduces The Vanishing Point
Influence of Western Perspective in Qianlong Scrolls Qianlong Scroll Number 4 by Xu Yang
Qianlong Scroll Number 4 by Xu YangMore concerned with reproducing how the eye sees than in Kangxi scrolls. Xu Yang maintains consistent vanishing points throughout duration of scroll.
Qianlong Scroll Number 6 by Xu YangFigures diminish in size and number limiting information available to viewer.
Changzhou on the Grand Canal
Website studies Qing Dynasty History and Culture by examining Southern Inspection Tour scrolls commissioned by Emperor Kangxi and Emperor Qianlong
Janet BakerCollection of Roy and Marilyn PappClaudia Brown Roy Papp Marilyn Papp
Welcome to Changzhou! Wang Hui 1689 A.D.Scroll 6 depicts Kangxi’s journey along the Grand Canal to Changzhou.Wang Hui grew up in the relatively poor village of Yushan, near Changshu, Jiangsu Province…his home village being only 15 miles away from Changzhou!This explains why he dedicated so much scroll space and detail to this relatively small area.
Fueled the Industrial Revolution `
(We still call this china today.)Porcelain
Qing leadership strictly limited trade and contact with the outsideworld. If you wanted to do business with China, you had to follow their rules and literally pay tribute.
The Qingcreated a strict hierarchy for their societywith Manchus at the top.They mandated that international trade only bedone far in the south.This kept all the foreigners controlled and in one place.
MacauMacau, (which they allowedthe Portuguese to control),was the only port opened to foreign trade. The British, wanting toincrease their trade greatly were frustrated by this limitation.
Macau The British wanted to opennew trade ports of their own.They tried desperately to do so, often insulting the Emperor in the process by attempting to create tradeports in other coastal cities often without permission.
The British had no goods to offer in trade that would interest the Qing. They were forced to pay in silver which caused a vast trade imbalance.They desperately needed to find a product they could trade in China to solve this.
With an influx of cheaper opium, demand began to increase in China.
For the first time, Silver started pouring OUT of China. In 1810, China enjoyed a favorable trade balance with $26 million silver dollars coming into China. 20 years later in 1830, $34 million silver dollars
With opium came all the social problems usually associated with drug addiction.
1838, THE QING HAD ENOUGH!They started a plan to rid the opium plague from their country. They began by punishing severely anyone who sold the drug as well as addicts who would not rehabilitate.
They then went after the British stores of the drug… … and then kicked the British out.2.6 Million pounds of Opium were destroyed.
1839The British retreated to a barren, rocky island where hardly a house existed at the time. The island was Hong Kong
Hong Kong Today Who would have guessed?!
The British remembered fighting Napoleonsmodern military of Le Grand Armei. They did not fear what they perceived as an antiquated Qing military. They prepared to go to war.
On March 18 1839, The Opium War BeginsChinese sailing ships proved no match forBritish steam engines.
The Qing thought that on land, they would have a home fieldadvantage… but as it proved, they didn’t.
The Qing had no choice but to sign the hated Treaty of Nanjing, August 29, 1842.These unequal Treaties were a humiliation to China .
80 treaty ports UK: Hong Kong, Guangdong Province. Yangze River Valley FRANCE: Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan, and Guangdong Provinces GERMANY: Shandong Province RUSSIA:Liaoning & Shandong Province.Dividing Up China JAPAN: Dongbei, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia and Taiwan