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History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China
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History and Culture of Song Dynasty, China

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Introduction to the History and Culture of Song Dynasty China by examining historic Scroll "Spring Festival on the River" by artist Zhang Zeduan for use in my Art Classes

Introduction to the History and Culture of Song Dynasty China by examining historic Scroll "Spring Festival on the River" by artist Zhang Zeduan for use in my Art Classes

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  • 1. “History and Culture of the Song Dynasty”  Compiled by Robert Ponzio  Chair, Fine Arts  Oak Hall School  Map 
  • 2. We can learn about the Song Dynasty by examining the scroll:   “The Spring Festival Along the River”  To Be Read Right to left A Hand Scroll by Zhang Zeduan (created in the early 12th Century)
  • 3. The scroll depicts a journey from the rural countryside to the imperial capital Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), the Northern Song capital  along the Grand Canal.   
  • 4. “The Spring Fes.val The Spring Fes.val Along the River”   provides a wealth of detail on the   varieLes of commercial acLvity in Kaifeng during it’s day.  
  • 5. Rainbow Bridge
  • 6. The Grand Canal quot; Major Route of Commerce  The Grand Canal was a major route of commerce and an engineering marvel.
  • 7. TransportaLon  These waterways helped to unify China and encourage economic and cultural growth.
  • 8. Suburbs  The Suburbs
  • 9. City Gates  Welcome to Kaifeng! Over a million people live in this largest city in the world. Passing through the great Gate of the City
  • 10. There are hundreds of  people depicted in the  scroll.  We can learn a  great deal about the  people of the Song by  examining their  acLviLes. 
  • 11. Transportation
  • 12. Traveling Koreans? Suburban Home
  • 13. The Food Court!
  • 14. The Grand Canal quot; 2004
  • 15. Advances   in Agriculture  New developments in  irrigaLon and  rice  culLvaLon, especially the  introducLon of new strains  of Rice from Champa what  is now Central Vietnam,  spectacularly increased  rice yields.  As a result the populaLon,  which had never before  exceeded 60 million, grew  to 100 million by 1127.  Many Song Dynasty  agricultural techniques are  sLll in use today 
  • 16. Vibrant Market Economy   The basic unit of payment  was copper coins strung on a  string, but these were heavy  and cumbersome for use in  large‐scale transacLons.   The Song soluLon was to  print paper money — Helping  to grease the wheels of trade  was the world's first paper  money.  Marco Polo's report of this  was met with incredulity in  the West.  
  • 17. Advancement   in the Arts:  Ceramics  Ewer, Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), 11th– 12th century; Yaozhou ware China  Stoneware with incised, carved, and relief  decoraLon under glaze; H. 8 1/4 in. (21 cm)  Gif of Mrs. T. Samuel Peters, 1926 (26.292.73) 
  • 18. Calligraphy  Scroll for Zhang Datong, dated 1100  Huang Tingjian (Chinese, 1045–1105)  Handscroll; ink on paper; 34.1 x 552.9 cm  The Art Museum, Princeton University  Gif of John B. Ellioh   Poem Wrihen in a Boat on the Wu River, Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127), ca. 1100  Mi Fu (Chinese, 1052–1107)  China  Handscroll; ink on paper; 44 columns in running‐cursive script; 12 1/4 in. x 18 f. 3 1/4 in. (31.1 x 557 cm)  Gif of John M. Crawford Jr., in honor of Professor Wen Fong, 1984 (1984.174) 
  • 19. Calligrapher as scene in the Zeduan scrollr  
  • 20. PainLng  Summer Mountains, Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), 11th century  Ahributed to Qu Ding (Chinese, acLve ca. 1023–ca. 1056) China  Handscroll; ink and pale color on silk; 17 7/8 x 45 3/8 in. (45.4 x 115.3 cm)  Ex coll.: C.C. Wang Family, Gif of The Dillon Fund, 1973 (1973.120.1)  
  • 21. Emperor Huizong  Five‐Colored Parakeet  Emperor Huizong 12th c.   He was also a great painter and calligrapher                   who invented the quot;Slender Goldquot; style.                                   •He was one of the three Chinese emperors   to prohibit Buddhism. 
  • 22. PainLng  Finches and Bamboo, Northern Song dynasty (960–1127)  Emperor Huizong (Chinese, 1082–1135; r. 1101–25)  China  Handscroll; ink and color on silk; 11 x 18 in. (27.9 x 45.7 cm)  Inscribed with the cipher of the emperor  John M. Crawford Jr. CollecLon, Purchase, Douglas Dillon Gif, 1981 (1981.278)  
  • 23. Emperor Huizong – Detail Of Ladies  Emperor Huizong – Auspicious Cranes   Preparing Woven Silk  
  • 24. Confucianism  Confucianism provided a faith for  people to live by, a convincing  account of the natural and human  world, and a theoreLcal  framework for state and society.   It emphasized self‐culLvaLon as a  path not only to self‐fulfillment but  to the formaLon of a virtuous and  harmonious society and state.   Some might emphasize one aspect  more than the other, but ideally,  learning to be a beher and wiser  person went hand in hand with  service to the larger social body.  Ask me about: Mencius  vs. Xunxi! 
  • 25. Public School System  Confucius taught that all people possessed the same potenLal, and  that educaLon was the correcLve means to curb any tendencies to  stray from ethical behavior.   •Confucius made educaLon available to students from all classes.   •EducaLon in China has thus been a equalizing force from ancient Lmes which  became the means by which individuals from even the humblest backgrounds could  rise to great heights.   •The ethics of Confucius which informed the tradiLonal curriculum, it was also a  powerful mechanism for implemenLng the ethical and social norms of Chinese  society.         “To enrich your family, there is no need to buy good land:   Books hold a thousand measures of grain.   For an easy life, there is no need to build a mansion:   In books are found houses of gold.   When you go out, do not be upset if no one follows you:   In books there will be a crowd of horses and carriages.   If you wish to marry, don't be upset if you don't have a go‐between:   In books there are girls with faces like jade.   A young man who wishes to be somebody   will devote his Eme to the Classics.   He will face the window and read”.   The Song Emperor, Renzong  
  • 26. The Examina+on   System  Since the Sui Dynasty (581‐617), passing a series of examinaLons led to  office in the civil service. It was only in the Song, however, that the  examinaLon system came to be considered the normal ladder to  success, though even then many took alternate routes.  Exams based on a command of Confucian texts.  Honesty was ensured by such measures as  idenLfying papers by number rather than the  candidate's name.  ExaminaLon taking could become a lifeLme  endeavor. CompeLLon was keen from the start,  but became intolerable by the end of the Song  Dynasty. 
  • 27. ReproducLon of Cell Used by Students  Taking the Imperial Exams  
  • 28. Buddhism  Chinese, Northern Song Dynasty  Guanyin, 11th century  wood with polychrome and gilt  39 inches high   The Iron Pagoda, Kaifeng 
  • 29. Women of the Song  •  Under the Song, many women gained rights to  own property, their ability to inherit, and to  control their children's educaLon.   •     •  Women also ran businesses and oversaw  family budgets.   
  • 30. The Lily Foot 
  • 31. Foot Binding  While foot binding was finally outlawed in 1911,   it was not unLl the Chinese Cultural RevoluLon of the 1940s and '50s that it was  genuinely obliterated.  
  • 32. • • • 200 CE • • • tea, 264-273 CE [received in the West, 1600s] • • • 300 CE • • • Word for porcelain first used [produced in the West, 1709] • • • 400 CE • • • sedanchair [received in the West, 1600s] • • • 500 CE • • • kite, 549 [received in the West, 1589] silk, 552-554 [in China, ca. 1300 BCE] Other Song InvenLons  • • • 600 CE • • • Chain drive ‐ 800 years later in the West  • • • 700 CE • • • playing cards [received in the West, 1377]  Canal pound‐lock ‐ 400 years later in  dominoes the West  gunpowder (?) [received in the West, 1330]  Mercator map projecLon ‐ 600 years  • • • 800 CE • • • porcelain described, 851 [produced in the West, 1709] later in the West     Phosphorescent paint ‐ 700 years later  oldest printed book, 868 [Bible printed in the West, 1456] in the West  • • • 900 • • • The Song Dynasty, 960-1279    Immunology ‐ 800 years later in the  • • • 1000 • • • movable type, 1041-1049 [block printing in the West, 1423] West  compass [received in the West, 1190] War technology     Flamethrower ‐ 1000 years later in the  zinc used in coins, 1094-1098 [described in the West, 1500s; industrially produced, 1740] West  orange [earlier origins in China, but cannot be accurately dated]    Flares and fireworks ‐ 250 years later  • • • 1100 • • • paper, 1150 [in China, 105 CE] in the West    quot;Sofquot; bombs and grenades ‐ 400 years  explosives, 1161 [gunpowder and cannon in the West, 1330] later in the West  compass, 1190 [in China, 1000s] The use of the following also • • • 1200 • • •    Movable type prinLng is invented in  originated in China in early times, but cannot be • • • 1300 • • • gunpowder and cannon, 1330 [in China, 700s] 1045 ‐ 400 years later in the West   accurately dated: peach, _____________________________  apricot, orange, lemon, playing cards, 1377 [in China, 700s] pomelo, chrysanthemum, tea rose, camellia, azalea, China lemon [earlier origins in China, but cannot be accurately dated] High culture develops. PainLng, Poetry,  aster, gingko, quot;German silver,quot; Calligraphy becomes mainstream.  • • • 1400 • • • block printing, 1423 [movable type in China, 1041-1049] wallpaper, goldfish. Military powers decline. The Jin invade  Gutenberg's Bible, 1456 [China's first printed book, 868] the North, the Sung moves capital from  • • • 1500 • • • chaulmoogra oil and [received in the West, after 1700s] Kaifeng to Hangzhou.  ephedrine described, 1552-1578 zinc described [used in coins in China, 1094-1098] kite, 1589 [in China, 549 CE] © Columbia University, East Asian  • • • 1600 • • • sedanchair [in China, 400s CE] Curriculum Project  China: A Teaching Workbook |  tea [in China, 264-273 CE] afe.easia.columbia.edu  folding umbrella [in China, in the 300s BCE] wallpaper manufactured, 1688
  • 33. Shen Kuo (Kua)  Born: 1031  ‐ Died: 1095  Song Dynasty scienLst, mathemaLcian, general,  diplomat, financial officer was the      inventor  of compasses for navigaLon. He found out, that  the compasses do not point north but to the  magneLc north pole. That was the decisive step  to make them useful for navigaLon.  He also formulated an hypothesis for the process of land formaLon: based on his  observaLon of fossil shells in a mountain hundreds of miles from the ocean, he  inferred that the land was formed by erosion of the mountains and by deposiLon of  silt. Shen Kuo was not only a geologist; his memoirs also examined magneLsm,  astronomy, and engineering, and other fields.  He created a book Meng Xi Bi Tan   (Translated “The Sketchbook of Dream Brook” or “Dream Pool Essays”)  (1086) in which  he wrote about mineralogy, erosion, sedimentaLon and uplif,  mathemaLcs, astronomy, and meteorology.   AhempLng to compile all of the  scien+fic knowledge of his day. Among this he also documented the knowledge of  the common people, the creaLve  invenLons and innovaLons created by those who  were not of the gentry.  This book s+ll survives today. 
  • 34. Chinese    Compass  Mariner's compass, with a floaLng  magneLzed needle poinLng north  and south.  A further refinement in the box compass (to  South Facing Chinese Compass. model of the       first  the right) is from about 1200 CE, and is  instrument known to be a compass. The spoon is of  much more suitable for navigaLon.  magneLc loadstone, and the plate is of bronze  
  • 35. PrinLng Press w/ Movable Type  A modern reproducLon of the movable type  invented by Pi Sheng between 1041 and 1048,  and a page printed from it. Movable type was  not invented by Johann Gutenberg, in 1423 as is  universally believed in the West. The  reproducLon was made from the detailed  descripLon by Shen Kuo which survives from  1086.  
  • 36. Advances in Science, Math and Medicine  “The Golden Age of Mathematics” occurred under the Song. Advances were also made in medicine, as the first autopsy was performed in about 1145 AD on the body of a Southern Chinese captive. Chinese Armillary  
  • 37. Advances in ConstrucLon Techniques 
  • 38. Silk 
  • 39. The Silk Road •  The Silk Road    ‐      A Vast Network of Trade Routes  During the first millennium B.C.E. through the middle of the second millennium C.E., a vast  network of trade routes known as the quot;Silk Roadquot; linked the people and tradiLons of Asia  with those of Europe. These historic routes served as a major conduit for the transport of  knowledge, informaLon and material goods between East and West and resulted in the first  global exchange of scienLfic and cultural tradiLons. 
  • 40. Transfer of InnovaLons  Many important scienLfic and technological innovaLons  migrated along the Silk Road to the West.    Transfer of these innovaLons, including gunpowder, the magneLc  compass, the prinLng press, silk, mathemaLcs, musical instruments,  ceramic and lacquer crafs, was gradual, so that the West had no clear  idea as to their origins.   Marco Polo  Kublai Khan giving  protecLon tablets to  Marco Polo's father and  Uncle.  
  • 41. Marco Polo  Marco Polo  (1254‐1324),   The famous VeneLan traveled on the Silk Road. His journey through Asia  lasted 24 years. He reached further than any of his predecessors, beyond  Mongolia to China. He became a confidant of Kublai Khan (1214‐1294). He  traveled the whole of China and returned to tell the tale, which became the  greatest travelogue.  
  • 42. Sea routes, important for trade and for communicaLon, may  also be considered part of the Silk Road.     
  • 43. Song Shipbuilding  The Song were world leaders in  ship‐building including water‐ Lght compartments and   stern‐post rudders.   They navigated  with the aid of  Their ships contained as many as (south‐poinLng)  four decks, six masts, a dozen compasses,  sails and held 500 sailors. another Chinese  invenLon. 
  • 44. The Song period improvements in speed, adaptability to marine  condiLons, and steadiness.    A strong navy of an ahacking army could come right up to a riverside city.   If a ship's deck was high enough, soldiers could step from  it to the top of  the city's wall. 
  • 45. quot;Sea Hawks,quot; as the type of ship above was called, had floaLng boards on each side to  stabilize the ship. (it is difficult to disLnguish the oars from these boards.)  Song ships were also strengthened with iron in the hull.    Some had several decks to keep the ship steady.    Song bahleships were equipped with fire‐bomb catapults and incendiary arrows that used  gunpowder.  SomeLmes protected staLons on upper decks were created for crossbowmen  who also played the role of watchmen. 
  • 46. quot;Whirlwindquot;  The Military  catapult     The Song possessed superior militarily technology rather  than military skills.   Determined to keep power out of the hands of the military  leaders, Song rulers reduced the status of its military men.   No longer could officials move between the civil and  military services.   Some soldiers were tahooed to keep them from deserLng.  quot;Bamboo  fire  hawkquot;      quot;Thunderbolt‐ballquot;      Raised quot;flowerquot;  and ball bombs    
  • 47. Fire cart    Fire oxen   
  • 48. Flame Throwers  quot;Fire‐spurLng lancesquot; were also invented during  the Song. Bamboo was used as a barrel to hold the  gunpowder, though by the Song, metal barrels  were also used. Some had narrow barrels and  could be held by one person. Others were  mounted on wooden frames and can be  understood to precede the modern cannon; these  were called eruptors.   
  • 49. Emperor Huizong’s  System of Tributes  Huizong neglected the army, and Song China became increasingly  weak and at the mercy of foreign enemies.   To the North, the Jurchen of Manchuria founded the   Jin Dynasty pressured the Song on the northern border.   Emperor Huizong began a system of tributes where gold, silk, grains  and other goods were offered to the Jin in exchange for peace.    The Jin soon declared war and by the beginning of 1126 they  crossed the Yellow River and came in sight of Kaifeng, the capital of  the Song empire.   Stricken with panic, Huizong abdicated on January 18, 1126 in favor  of his son who became Emperor Qinzong.   Captured by the invading Jin, Huizong spent the last 8 years of his  life as a capLve. The man who once had been the most powerful  ruler on earth and had lived in opulence and art died a broken man  in far‐away Northern Manchuria in June 1135 at the age of 52. 
  • 50. In 1125, when the Jurchen, a seminomadic people from northeast Asia, invaded Song China  and captured the capital at Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), founding their own Jin dynasty in the  north, the Song court reestablished itself in the south in Hangzhou, where it conLnued to rule  for another 150 years as the Southern Song dynasty.  
  • 51. Yue Fei   •  Days afer his birth, flooding of the Yellow  River destroyed Yue Fei's village.   •  His father drowned in the floods, but not  before he had ensured the survival of his  wife and son by floaLng them downstream  in a jar.   •  Yue Fei became proficient in warfare at an  early age.  As a young man narrowly escaped  execuLon afer killing the Prince of Liang in a  marLal arts tournament.   •  He did not join the fight against the Jurchen  invaders unLl he was 23. 

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