To DRM or not to DRM?

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Presentation discussion some key-points in the history of DRM technology, and it's main problems!

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To DRM or not to DRM?

  1. 1. To DRM or not to DRM? ESCE/IPS, 6 de Dezembro, 2011 ISCTE-IUL/ISTA/ADETTI-IUL Carlos Serrão Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa carlos.serrao@iscte.pt Lisbon University Institute carlos.j.serrao@gmail.com ISCTE-IUL School of Technology and Architecture ADETTI-IUL http://www.carlosserrao.net http://blog.carlosserrao.net http://www.linkedin.com/in/carlosserrao
  2. 2. About me...2 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  3. 3. Content3 ¨ In media production and publishing, content is information and experiences that may provide value for an end-user/audience in specific contexts. ¨ Content may be delivered via any medium such as the internet, television, and audio CDs, as well as live events such as conferences and stage performances. ¨ The word is used to identify and quantify various formats and genres of information as manageable value-adding components of media. To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  4. 4. Intellectual Property4 ¨ Intellectual property (IP) is a term referring to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law ¨ Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. ¨ Types of intellectual property rights: ¤ copyrights ¤ trademarks ¤ patents ¤ industrial design rights ¤ trade secrets ¤ ... To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  5. 5. Copyright is a legal concept, enacted bymost governments, giving the creatorof an original work exclusive rights toit, usually for a limited time.Generally, it is "the right to copy", butalso gives the copyright holder the rightto be credited for the work, todetermine who may adapt the work toother forms, who may perform thework, who may financially benefit fromit, and other, related rights.
  6. 6. Digital Content6 ¨ Advantages and Opportunities ¤ better content ¤ new and better delivery channels ¤ new customers ¤ faster delivery ¤ ... ¨ Disadvantages and Challenges ¤ piracy and uncontrolled distribution ¤ ... To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  7. 7. Impact #1 - Digital Formats
  8. 8. Impact #2 - Bandwidth
  9. 9. Impact #3 - P2P
  10. 10. Impact #4 - Compression
  11. 11. Piracy...... the right way to fight it?
  12. 12. http://youtu.be/l5SmrHNWhak
  13. 13. Content13 ¨ Answer from content industry ¤ Digital ¤ Rights ¤ Management ¨ and ¤ Copy ¤ Protection/Prevention To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  14. 14. DRM interoperability14 ¨ DRM involves the: ¤ description ¤ layering ¤ analysis ¤ valuation ¤ trading ¤ and monitoring of rights ¨ over an individual or organizations assets, in digital format. To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  15. 15. CDeXtended Copy Protection (XCP)Copy-Protection on CDsSony BMG CD copy protection rootkitscandalMediaMax CD-3Copy-Protection on CDs A  rootkit  is  so;ware  that  enables  con0nued  privileged  access  to  a  computer   while  ac0vely  hiding  its  presence  from  administrators  by  subver0ng  standard   opera0ng  system  func0onality  or  other  applica0ons.
  16. 16. Mark Russinovich(Sysinternals, actual Microsoft)
  17. 17. #FAILMark Russinovich(Sysinternals, actual Microsoft)
  18. 18. DVDCSS content-scrambling system1996-1999 1. CSS prevents byte-for-byte copies of an MPEG (digital video) stream from being playable since such copies do not include the keys that are hidden on the lead-in area of the restricted DVD. 2. CSS provides a reason for manufacturers to make their devices compliant with an industry-controlled standard, since CSS scrambled discs cannot in principle be played on noncompliant devices.
  19. 19. Jon Lech Johansen (a.k.a. DVD Jon) DeCSS QTFairUse DeDRM PyMusique, SharpMusic (iTunes alternatives) DoubleTwist
  20. 20. AACSAdvanced Access Content SystemHD-DVD, BlueRay Since appearing in devices in 2006, several AACS decryption keys have been extracted from weakly protected software players and published on the Internet, allowing decryption by other unlicensed software.
  21. 21. Digital files cannot be madeuncopyable, any more thanwater can be made not wet. Bruce Schneier in Crypto Gram, 15 May 2001 http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram-0105.html#3
  22. 22. It was originally founded as a pioneering peer-to-peer file sharing Internet service thatemphasized sharing audio files, typicallymusic, encoded in MP3 format. John Fanning Shawn FanningIn its second incarnation Napster became anonline music store until it merged withRhapsody on 1 December 2011.
  23. 23. GamesSecuROMSafeDisc
  24. 24. Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)United States copyright law that implements two 1996treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization(WIPO)Criminalizes production and dissemination of technology,devices, or services intended to circumvent measuresthat control access to copyrighted worksCriminalizes the act of circumventing an access control,whether or not there is actual infringement of copyrightitself
  25. 25. http://youtu.be/ryXDhXqR-SE
  26. 26. Digital Content Value-Chain26 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  27. 27. Digital Content Value-Chain26 Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Content Creation, Capture Content Rights Establishment Content Rights Validation Content Packaging Content Repository Content Trading Content Distribution Content Trading Content Distribution Content Payment Content Trading Permission Management To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  28. 28. Digital Rights Management27 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  29. 29. Digital Rights Management27 Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  30. 30. Digital Rights Management27 iTunes FairPlay Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Content authors Publishers To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  31. 31. Digital Rights Management27 iTunes FairPlay Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Apple, Inc. Content authors Publishers To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  32. 32. Digital Rights Management27 iTunes FairPlay Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Apple, Inc. Content authors Publishers Apple content servers To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  33. 33. Digital Rights Management27 iTunes FairPlay Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Apple, Inc. Content authors Publishers Apple iTunes Apple content content store servers To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  34. 34. Digital Rights Management27 iTunes FairPlay Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Apple, Inc. Content authors Publishers Apple iTunes Apple content content store servers Apple iPod, iPhone, Apple TV, ... To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  35. 35. Digital Rights Management28 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  36. 36. Digital Rights Management28 Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  37. 37. Digital Rights Management28 Windows Media DRM Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Content authors Publishers To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  38. 38. Digital Rights Management28 Windows Media DRM Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Content authors Publishers Content is encoded, protected and stored To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  39. 39. Digital Rights Management28 Windows Media DRM Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Content authors Publishers Content is encoded, protected and stored Protected content is made available to stores To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  40. 40. Digital Rights Management28 Windows Media DRM Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Content authors Content acquired Publishers Content is encoded, and dowloaded + protected and stored license Protected content is made available to stores License production To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  41. 41. Digital Rights Management28 Windows Media DRM Creator Publisher Aggregator Distributor Retailer Consumer Content authors Content acquired Publishers Content is encoded, and dowloaded + protected and stored license Protected content is made available to stores License production To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  42. 42. g tin pu m Co d te usTr http://youtu.be/UnXU7z2_6Jg
  43. 43. remixed r/wculture
  44. 44. remixed r/wculture
  45. 45. http://www.ted.com/talks/larry_lessig_says_the_law_is_strangling_creativity.html
  46. 46. Digital Content Value-Chain33 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  47. 47. Digital Content Value-Chain33 Consumer Distributor is Aggregator is Consumer Creator Publisher Aggregator is Creator ConsumerConsumer is Retailer Consumer is Publisher Consumer Distributor Retailer ¨ Consumers are “active” not “passive” ¨ Consumers take other roles on DCVC ¨ Changes the established rights management logic To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  48. 48. interoperability
  49. 49. Digital Rights Management35 ¨ DRM 1.0 failure ¤ Vulnerable DRM systems ¤ Limitations to user experience ¤ Limited availability ¤ Offer limited protection ¤ Imposition to end-users ¤ Lack of interoperability ¨ DRM 2.0 must solve these issues To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  50. 50. Digital Rights Management36 DRM 1.0 DRM 1.5 DRM 2.0 Apple OpenIPM DMP Fairplay P Chillout Coral Windows Media OMA DRM DRM DReaM Marlin MPEG-2 1 AXMedis MIPAM S To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  51. 51. Digital Rights Management37 ¨ DRM Layers To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  52. 52. Digital Rights Management37 ¨ DRM Layers Rights Management Rights Enforcement Copy Protection To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  53. 53. Digital Rights Management38 ¨ DRM Layers – non-interoperable To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  54. 54. Digital Rights Management38 ¨ DRM Layers – non-interoperable Rights Management X Rights Management DRM B DRM A Rights Enforcement X Rights Enforcement Copy Protection X Copy Protection To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  55. 55. Digital Rights Management39 ¨ DRM Layers - interoperable To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  56. 56. Digital Rights Management39 ¨ DRM Layers - interoperable DRM DRM Rights Management Rights Management A B DRM DRM Rights Enforcement Rights Enforcement A B DRM DRM Copy Protection Copy Protection B A To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  57. 57. Digital Rights Management40 ¨ Interoperability strategies (International Standards): ¤ Full format interoperability ¤ Connected interoperability ¤ Configuration driven interoperability To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  58. 58. Digital Rights Management41 DRM 1.0 DRM 1.5 DRM 2.0 Apple OpenIPM DMP Fairplay P Chillout Coral Windows Media OMA DRM DRM DReaM Marlin MPEG-2 1 AXMedis Interoperability MIPAM S To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  59. 59. OpenSDRM42 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  60. 60. OpenSDRM42 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  61. 61. OpenSDRM42 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  62. 62. OpenSDRM42 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  63. 63. OpenSDRM42 To DRM or not to DRM? 6.Dez.2011
  64. 64. Creative Commons licensesare several copyrightlicenses that allow thedistribution of copyrightedworks.The licenses differ byseveral combinations thatcondition the terms ofdistribution.
  65. 65. Attribution (by)Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work andmake derivative works based on it only if they give the author orlicensor the credits in the manner specified by these.Noncommercial (nc)Licensees may copy, distribute, display, and perform the work andmake derivative works based on it only for noncommercialpurposes.No Derivative Works (nd)Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform only verbatimcopies of the work, not derivative works based on it.Share-alike (sa)Licensees may distribute derivative works only under a licenseidentical to the license that governs the original work.
  66. 66. 45 Research challenges?!?
  67. 67. Still some interesting technicalchallenges- Formats- Interoperability- Security
  68. 68. Better control to private information- Social Networks- Private information sharing
  69. 69. Applicability to vertical sectors- Health- Business information- Education and Research
  70. 70. Super-copySuper-distributionMonetization
  71. 71. 50 Q & A?
  72. 72. To DRM or not to DRM? ESCE/IPS, 6 de Dezembro, 2011 ISCTE-IUL/ISTA/ADETTI-IUL Carlos Serrão Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa carlos.serrao@iscte.pt Lisbon University Institute carlos.j.serrao@gmail.com ISCTE-IUL School of Technology and Architecture ADETTI-IUL http://www.carlosserrao.net http://blog.carlosserrao.net http://www.linkedin.com/in/carlosserrao

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