Grossmann - Trends in Chemical Engineering Education: a U.S. PerspectiveOptimal Design and Operation of Sustainable and Robust Process Systems
Trends in ChemicalEngineering Education:a U.S. PerspectiveIgnacio E. GrossmannCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburgh, PA 15213U.S.A.
Industry Hiring 2007 (AIChE)~ 42% chemicals/fuels
Diversity of jobs forB.S. Chemical Engineers (AIChE)
Chemical engineers are highest paid! Average Bachelors Degree Salary (2009) Chemical Engineering $65,466 Mechanical Engineering $58,648 Computer Science $58,419 Electrical/Electronics & Communications $57,404 Engineering Construction Science/Management $52,837 Civil Engineering $50,785 Finance $49,794 Logistics/Materials Management $49,389 Accounting $48,334 Nursing $46,655 ~ $15,000 more than Civil Engineering
Major trends (cont.)Chemicals/Petrochemicals no longer dominant industriesMany retirements are expected next decade (2% growth in jobs isexpected) but effect of shale gas may revitalize petrochemicalsBioengineering area poses opportunities and challenges: - Perceived as “hot” area: most new faculty in bio area - Biomedical Engineering Depts, are “stealing” students and faculty (Whitaker Foundation provided funding to establish many new Biomed Depts.) Job market biomedical engineers?Many departments (~50%) have been renamed as: Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (e.g. Cornell, U. Penn., Illinois, Georgia Tech) Chemical and Biological Engineering (e.g. Colorado, Northwestern, Notre Dame, Wisconsin)
Major trends (cont.)Nanotechnology is another “hot” areaIncreasing emphasis on Science in Chemical Eng.Departments- Many professors are not chemical engineers and do not regard AIChE as their primary organization- Has increased multidisciplinary approach- Decreased emphasis on chemical engineering fundamentals- Process Design courses largely outsourced to retired industry people- Process Control no longer required at many universities
New areas: Energy and SustainabilityFossil fuels with low CO2 impact (petroleum, natural gas,coal)Biofuels (biodiesel, bioethanol, biorefineries)Improved energy efficiency of chemical processes Will require advances in catalysis, reaction engineering and process engineeringChallenge: Environmental area was “lost” to Civil Eng.Renamed as Civil and Environmental Eng Departments Remark: Recent interest in Innovation Innovation courses at CMU: Process Design, Product Design, Transport Lab, Unit Ops Lab
Impact of trends on curriculumFewer courses (promoted by deans)Displacement of core subjects to make room for newcourses: - 1st & 2nd Law and Phase/Chemical Equilibrium in one Thermo course - Reduction in Transport Phenomena - Elimination of Process Control as required courseNew courses: biology, biomolecular eng., product designMore electives courses: both free / technical
Undergraduate Curriculum ABETAccreditation Board of Engineering and TechnologyOld ABET system: - Rigid - Bean counting (number of hours for various courses) - “Design experience”New ABET (2000): - Flexible - Requires vision, plan, metrics (strategies) - Process for changes (metrics, surveys)
Plan for undergraduate education in Chemical Engineering at CMUVISION (2006)Graduates in Chemical Engineering atCarnegie Mellon will obtain employment orattend graduate school, will advance in theirchosen careers, and will be productive andfulfilled professionals throughout theircareers.
Curriculum Carnegie Mellon 4yrs (8 semesters) Intro to ChemE Calculus I, II, III Physics I, II Computer Science SeminarModern Chem I Thermo ChemE Math LabModern Chem II Fluid Mech Adv Phys Chem ChemE Thermo Lab Chem Lab Lab Heat & Mass Seminar Organic I Rxn Eng Unit Ops Process Design Lab Biochemistry Optimization Control Product Design Math. & Basic Sci. (1.25 yrs) Chemical Eng. Topics (1.5 yrs) 5 Free Electives (0.5 yrs) 8 Humanities/S. Sci (0.75 yrs) http://www.cheme.cmu.edu/
Students usually use free electives to pursue minors Minors: Colloids, Polymers and Surfaces Environmental Engineering Supply Chain Management (offered by Business School) Double major Biomedical/Health Eng. (unique in United States) Double major Engineering and Public Policy Chemistry Computer Science Business Administration English, French Philosophy Multidisciplinary courses Product Design and Innovation Carnegie Mellon 12
Program outcomes (motivated by ABET)A. Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineeringB. Ability to design experiments and analyze and interpret dataC. Ability to design a chemical processD. Ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problemsE. Ability to use modern engineering toolsF. Ability to function on multidisciplinary teamsG. Understanding of professional and ethical responsibilityH. An ability to communicate effectivelyI. Ability to understand engineering in global/societal contextJ. Appreciation and capability for life-long learningK. Knowledge of contemporary issues
Minnesota ChE Curriculum (new) Year 1 Year 3Chemistry 1, 2 Organic labPhysics 1, 2 Biomolecular engineeringCalculus 1, 2 Momentum and heat transferWriting ThermodynamicsBiology Process analytical chemistry Mass transfer and separations Computational methods Kinetics and reactor engineering Liberal ed, elective 3 Year 2 Year 4Organic chemistry 1,2 ChE lab (1.5 sem.)Physical chemistry 1,2 Process designMultivariable calculus, vectors Polymers and biopolymersLinear algebra, diff. eq. Process controlMaterials science Product design (0.5 sem.)Mass and energy balances Technical electives 1,2,3Liberal ed electives 1,2 minor: MatS, Chem, Bio, Business Liberal ed. electives 4,5 35 courses in 4 years (8 semesters)
Princeton ChE Curriculum (new) Year 1 Year 3MAT (Calculus 1) ChE (Transport)PHY (Physics 1) H&SSChM Program ElectiveH&SS Program ElectiveMAT (Calculus 2) H&SSPHY (Physics 2) ChE (Laboratory)ChM ChE (Reactors) 35 courses in 4Computer Requirerement H&SS years (8 semesters)Writing Requirement Year 2 Year 4 • 1 Transport courseMAT (Multivariable Calculus ChE (Design) (Fluid, Heat and Mass)ChE (Material & Energy) ChE Lab • 5 Electives (ChemE)ChM (Organic Chem) Program Elective and 2 Open electivesMAT (Linear Algebra) H&SS • No ControlH&SS ChE (Senior thesis)ChE (Thermodynamics) Program ElectiveMOL (Biology) Open ElectiveMAE (Diff. Eqns) Open ElectiveChE (Separations Process)H&SS
New Curriculum Project Council forChemical Research (Bob Armstrong, MIT, 2006) New Core Organizing Principles
Envisioned Integrated CurriculumFreshman Soph Junior SeniorEnabling Molecular-Scale Transformations Molecular Basis Molecular Basis of Reactions Special TopicsCourses of Thermo Molecular Basis of Properties (Electives)- Physics Classfctn of Molecules and Constitutive Eqns- Chemistry- Biology- Math Multi-Scale Analysis Beaker to Plant:- Mat’ls Sci Interfaces and Assemblies Multi-Scale Descriptions Principles of Product &- Eng/Comm Homogeneous Reactor Eng of Reactive Systems Process Des.- Bus/Mgt Systems Intro to Systems Intro to Molecular Systems Systems &Chem Eng: The MarketplaceThe FroshExperience
The Business ConnectionOne trillion dollar industry!
Remarks1. Need to keep core Chemical Engineering Knowledge2. Need to emphasize fundamentals: basis life-long learning Forecasts are almost always wrong3. Need to introduce flexibility in curriculum4. Need to modernize curriculum • Increase exposure molecular level • Increase exposure to energy (alternative/renewable) and sustainability issues • Reflect current technology • Introduce product design but only as complement of process design • Emphasize process operations, enterprise planning • Increase link to other industrial sectors (pharma, electronics) • The curriculum must also emphasize professionalism and ethics •5. Need to recognize that “bio-area”, while important, will not be dominant force in Chemical Engineering, and emphasis should be on bioprocessing6. Environmental Engineering will be increasingly important and requires chemical engineering (water use efficiency, pollution control, etc.)7. Need to provide excitement to recruit the very best young people to join the Chemical Engineering