Overview- Elearning Interconnecting the All Parts of the Globe
E-learning Across the Globe Part 4 - Cultural problems implementing E-learning Part 3 - Current efforts to implement E-learning in developed and developing countries Part 2 - Understanding with a look backward and forward in time. Part 1 - Introduction
E-learning Across the Globe “ Myth #1: Everyone knows what you mean when you talk about elearning”(Dublin, 2006).
Computer Based Training - 1984 to 1995
Training not bundled with product
Product mainly delivered by CD-ROM
Slow to create, hard to revise and edit
Other terms used during this time include Computer Based Learning (CBL)
Learning Management Systems - 1995 to 2000+
Effort to control and manage use of computer based training
Delivery starts to migrate to Wide Area Networks, and the Internet
Online discussions emerge
Terms from this time include Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), Course Management Systems (CMS), and Training Management Systems (TMS)
Web Based Training- Late 1990s to Present
Emergence of virtual classrooms online
Bandwidth limits reduce multimedia quality
Disruption of technology
Some terms from this time include blended learning, Learning Content Management Systems (is an enhanced form of LMS), simulations
Cutting Edge- Present to ??????
Bad classroom practices still present
Emergence of constructivist approach to learning
Student-Centered- Learner controls pace and is active
“… content was created, shared, remixed, repurposed, and passed along… (Rosenberg, 2006)
Common terms currently include wikis, blogs for writing and videos, social networking, and podcasting. Other tools for creating and participating in an elearning 2.0 world include, Flickr, Wordpress, RSS, del.icio.us, Furl, etc.
Long Term Implications-
Not enough time to retrain
Kerrer (2007) Web 1.0 top-down, 1.3 top-down with collaboration, and 2.0 bottom-up
Friedman (2005) three stages of globalization, national, corporate, person driven
Unanticipated and massive change
Elearning: Global Perspective
Higher education K-12 schools Public & Private Sector Cooperation on the global level
Elearning in Europe
Elearning in Europe is considered to be an important element of the economic agenda. It is used to describe improvement in quality and efficiency by implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education, and social and government areas.
T - Technologies C – Communication I - Information On the WhatIs.com site ICT is defined as “an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries.
Elearning in Europe – the “Lisbon Agenda” Achieving an inclusive European Information Society Strengthening innovation and investment in ICT research The completion of a single European information space Objective
to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion (European Council, Lisbon, March 2000).
Making i2010 strategy successful depends on:
Access to necessary equipment
Tiers of ICT development in Europe Finland Sweden Denmark Ireland United Kingdom Germany France Austria Spain Italy Poland Slovakia Bulgaria Romania Russia
All citizens have equal access to knowledge in communications technologies,
All universities have developed and implemented strategies for the use of information and communications technologies in teaching,
On the national level, digital study materials and services for teaching have been developed and provided for targeting different subjects and levels of education,
Life as Learning –research program has been launched. The program concentrates on researching learning,
Adequate computers and hardware have been provided, and network connections have been improved for the benefit of citizens, students, teachers and researchers,
Insufficient access to computers and the Internet High costs of IT services Poorly developed IT market Slow computerization process of elementary and high schools Lack of the unifying organizational structure – no political will
The Preparation for the Future
International economic competition has intensified with the world entering a so-called period of “mega-competition” (Owen, 2008).
Much effort is necessary to meet these challenges.
The Preparation for the Future
All countries are having the same struggle with technology.
Different levels of technology access are caused by different gaps in the economy.
Government - parliamentary democracy
Singapore has a 10 year master plan, called iN2015 (Intelligent Nation, 2015).
This master plan will identify new possibilities for Singapore’s industries, economy and society empowered by next era technologies.
It will also bring Singapore into the ICT forefront.
Through the use of Infocomm, educators will meet the diverse needs of learners.
“ In a connected world, education is an exciting adventure. Text books are replaced by a rich interactive content and technology transforms learning into a real-time, collective, multi-dimensional experience”
Population: just over 1.3 billion people (1,330,044,605 as of mid-2008); China is the world's largest and most populous country. As the world's population is approximately 6.7 billion, China represents a full 20% of the world's population so one in every five people on the planet is a resident of China.
The China Education and Research Network is the first nationwide education and research computer network in China.
The CERNET project is funded by the Chinese government and directly managed by the Chinese MOE.
CERNET has 12 global and regional channels connected with the United States, Canada, the UK, Germany, Japan and Hong Kong.
It also has more than 2,000 education and research institutions.
With the help of CERNET, China aims to establish 6000 distance education centers in Western China, and to connect 90 per cent of primary and secondary schools to the Internet by 2010 (Li, 2008).
Students of remote and under-developed areas are the biggest beneficiaries of online education. Online universities provide lifelong education and learning opportunities to both students who have failed university entrance examinations and working people.
Part of Japan’s globalization plan is to establish a system for cultivating “Japanese with English abilities.”
They believe English plays a critical role as the common international language in linking people who have different mother tongues.
The e-Japan Priority Program was designed to help dissolve the digital divide issues in Japan.
In the telecommunication world Japan is one of the world's biggest competitors. However, as for the penetration rate of the Internet, Japan is still at a low level among major industrialized nations.
Only 8.3% of classrooms are connected with LAN environment to the Internet. Korea has connected 100% of its classrooms and the United States 77%.
However, the e-Japan Priority Program will help establish a national infrastructure by
building an ultra high-speed Internet network
Providing constant Internet access to 30 million households.
The Cultural Challenges of e-Learning
High education institutions are trying to attract international students
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have an international employee base
Development agencies such (UNESCO, USAID) want to help to improve education in developing nations
Challenges in E-learning Delivery
Cultural reactions to foreign learning systems
examining the processes of Chinese students’ adaptations to online learning at an Australian university.
focus is on flexible learning, the type of learning delivered mainly through online technologies with no or very few optional face-to-face meetings.
Attitudes toward teaching methodology
Constructivism vs. Objectivism
High Uncertainty Avoidance vs. Low Uncertainty Avoidance
Attitudes toward learning environment
Individualism vs. Communalism
Universalism vs. Particularism
Comprehensive instructor-led, web based curriculum designed to teach Internet tech skills and prepare students for industry cert.
Program developed jointly by education and networking experts to equip students with skills to be economically active in an area of employment vital to Internet economy
Taught in 149 countries worldwide with over 100,000 academies, nearly 300,000 students
Results: “Reactions to the pedagogical approach of the online curriculum varied considerably between countries.
How students were treated
How instructors perceived their role
How instructors perceived students
Additional support to students new to online learning (e.g. occasional face-to-face meetings, coaching sessions, initial e-learning orientation seminars)
More video lectures
More interactive online tools
Challenges in E-learning Content
Providing course adaptability
Western countries exporting e-learning to Eastern countries
Different cultural values
Language translation issues
Complexity Level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Content Type Simple information, knowledge, news Low level, cognitive “hard skills”; simple knowledge and core concepts Some soft skills; complex knowledge, (financial info, business strategy and most business skills Mostly “softer skills”, such as attitudes and beliefs; many complex management skills Content examples Product knowledge, company procedures Application software, other electronic skills Project management, presentation skills, marketing strategy Negotiation skills, motivation, teamwork, conflict resolution
create uncomplicated programs that reflect a more objectivist-instructivist approach
pay closer attention to the target group the program is being exported to
target the same group in other countries because they will already be familiar with the subject's jargon
target audience's cultural values (e.g. leadership)
not all e-learning programs require adaptation
Thank You By Karen Edoff, Gregory Mason, Agnieszka Obstoj, & Dean Raizman University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences, Fall 2008