54350108 metro-prototype-new
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    54350108 metro-prototype-new 54350108 metro-prototype-new Document Transcript

    • A MINOR PROJECT REPORT ON METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIRMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGG. FROM KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY,KURUKSHETRASUBMITTED BY: GUIDED BY:NIKHIL (1705429) Asstt. Prof. DEVENDER PRAKASHHEMANT KUMAR (1705433) CO-GUIDED BY:PRIYANSHU CHAUHAN (1705439) Er. VARSHA SOOD DEPTT. OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT
    • AMBALA ROAD, KAITHAL-136027
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTMany lives & destinies are destroyed due to the lack of proper guidance, directions &opportunities. It is in this respect I feel that I am in much better condition today due tocontinuous process of motivation & focus provided by my parents & teachers in general. Theprocess of completion of this project was a tedious job & requires care & support at all stages. Iwould like to highlight the role played by individuals towards this.I am eternally grateful to honorable principal Dr. D.P. Gupta for providing us the opportunity &infrastructure to complete the project as a partial fulfillment of B.Tech degree.I am very thankful to Asst. Prof. Rajiv Chechi, Head of Department, for his kind support &faith in us.I would like to express my sincere thanks, with deep sense of gratitude to my project guide Asst.Prof. Devender Prakash for their keen interests my project.I also thank Mr. Varun Sharma for his valuable help in our project.I am also thankful to all visible & invisible hands which helped us to complete this project with afeeling of success.Nikhil (1705429)Hemant Kumar (1705433)Priyanshu Chauhan (1705439) (i)
    • CERTIFICATEWe hereby certify the work which is being presented in the project entitled “METRO TRAINPROTOTYPE” by “NIKHIL SHARMA, HEMANT KUMAR, PRIYANSHU CAUHAN” inpartial fulfillment of requirements for the award of degree B.Tech (Electronics &Communication Engg.) submitted in the Department of Electronics & Communication Engg.at Haryana College Of Technology & Management, Kaithal under Kurukshetra University,Kurukshetra is carried out during a period from August2008 to December2008 under thesupervision of “Asstt. Prof. Devender Prakash” Department of Electronics & CommunicationEngineering, HCTM Kaithal. The matter presented in this project has not been submitted by mein any other University/ Institue for the award of B.Tech. Degree. NIKHIL SHARMA (1705429) HEMANT KUMAR (1705433)PRIYANSHU CHAUHAN (1705439)This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my/ourknowledge.Asstt. Prof. Devender Prakash Er. Varsha SoodProject Guide Project Co-guideThe B.Tech Viva Voce Examination of “Nikhil Sharma, Hemant Kumar, Priyanshu Chauhan”has been held on _____________ and accepted.(Asstt. Prof. Rajiv Chechi)H.O.D (ii)
    • ABSTRACTThis project is designed so that students can understand the technology used in the now aday’s driver less metro train which is used in most of the developed countries likeGermany, France, and Japan etc. These trains are equipped with the CPU, which controlthe train. The train is programmed for the specific path. Every station on the path isdefined; stoppage timing of the train and distance between the two stations is predefined.In this ProjectIn this project we try to give the same prototype for this type of trains. We are usingmicrocontroller 8051 as CPU. The motion of the train is controlled by the Stepper Motor,for displaying message in the train we are using Intelligent LCD Display of two lines.The train is designed for three stations, named as Aligarh, Ghaziabad & New Delhi. TheStoppage time is of 3 Sec and time between two consecutive stations is 6 sec. There is aLCD display for showing various messages in the train for passengers. There areindicators, which are used to show the train direction i.e. Up path and Down path. Beforestopping at station the train blows the buzzer. It also includes an emergency brake systemdue to which the train stops as soon as the brakes are applied and resumes journey whenthe emergency situation is over.This paper describes a prototype that has been developed to demonstrate the concept ofintegrated gaming and simulation for incident management. Architecture for the purposewas developed and presented at the last conference. A hypothetical emergency incidentscenario has been developed for demonstrating the applicability of integrated simulationand gaming. A number of simulation and gaming modules have been utilized to modelthe major aspects of the hypothetical scenario. The modules demonstrate the value ofutilizing simulation for incident management applications. They can be used to highlightthe value of simulation and gaming for training applications in particular. Two of thesimulation modules have been integrated using a modified implementation of the highlevel architecture to give an idea of the advantages. Technical issues in integration areidentified.
    • (iii)
    • LIST OF TABLESTABLE NO. TOPIC PAGE NO. 1.1 List of Components 4 1.2 Maximum Rating of ULN 14 4.1 Cost Analysis 45 (iv)
    • LIST OF FIGURESFIGURE NO. TOPIC PAGE NO. 1.1 Pin Diagram of 8051 5 1.2 Reset Diagram 7 1.3 Block Diagram of 8051 10 1.4 ULN 2003 13 1.5 Voltage Regulator 7805 15 1.6 12V 75Ω Unipolar Stepper Motor 16 1.7 Basic Stepper Motor 18 1.8 Schematic Diagram of LCD 19 1.9 LCD Display 20 1.10 Power Supply 20 1.11 Bridge Rectifier 21 1.12 Basic Transformer 22 1.13 Diode 22 1.14 Symbol of Resistance 23 1.15 Carbon Film Resistance 24 1.16 Capacitor 26 1.17 Symbol of Capacitor 26 1.18 Capacitor & Battery Connection 27 1.19 LED & LED Symbol 27 1.20 Detailed Diagram of LED 28 1.21 Buzzer 28 3.1 Block Diagram 43 3.2 Circuit Diagram 44 (v)
    • CONTENTS PageCONTENTS No.Certificate (i)Acknowledgement (ii) (iiiAbstract ) (ivList of Tables )List of Figures (v)Chapter 1 ユ Introduction 1-29Chapter 2 ユ Literature Review 30-37Chapter 3 ユ PCB Designing 38-40 ユ Working 41-42 ユ Block Diagram 43 ユ Circuit Diagram 44Chapter 4 ユ Cost Analysis 45 ユ Problem Faced & Troubleshooting 46Chapter 5 ユ Conclusion 47 ユ Future Scope 47REFERENCES 48-49APPENDIX ユ Program Coding 50-58 ユ Datasheets 59-77
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION & COMPONENTSINTRODUCTIONThis project is designed so that students can understand the technology used in thenow a day’s driver less metro train which is used in most of the developed countrieslike Germany, France, and Japan etc. These trains are equipped with the CPU, whichcontrol the train. The train is programmed for the specific path. Every station on thepath is defined; stoppage timing of the train and distance between the two stations ispredefined. This is very wonderful project to control the working of the train withoutdriver. These train are equipped with the CPU which control the train. 1. 8051 Microcontroller 2. ULN 2003 3. Stepper motor 4. LCDIn this project we try to give the same prototype for this type of trains. We are using ATMELmicrocontroller 8051 to control all the function as CPU. Microcontroller controls the rotation ofmotor. First the motor is controlled and name of each station is displayed over LCD andaccordingly the different delay for each station is provided. So this project works for metrotrain without driver. The motion of the train is controlled by the Stepper Motor, for displayingmessage in the train we are using Intelligent LCD Display of two lines. The train is designedfor three stations, named as New Delhi, Noida, and Greater Noida. The Stoppage time is of 3Sec and time between two consecutive stations is 6 sec. There is a LCD display for showingvarious messages in the train for passengers. There are indicators, which are used to show thetrain direction i.e. UP path and down path. Before stopping at station the train blows the buzzer.It also includes an emergency brake system due to which the train stops as soon as the brakesare applied and resumes journey when the emergency situation is over.
    • DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG.HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 2WHAT IS EMBEDDED TECHNOLOGYEmbedded technology is software or hardware that is hidden embedded in a largedevice or system. It typically refers to a fixed function device, as compared with a PC,which runs general purpose application. Embedded technology is nothing new. It allaround us and has been for years. An early example of embedded technology is theengine control unit in a car, which measures what setting to give the engine. Yourcoffee maker has embedded technology in the form of a microcontroller, which iswhat tells it to make the coffee at 6 a.m. the vending machine has it too. Overall,billions of devices woven into everyday life use embedded technology.In the past embedded technology existed in standalone device vending machines andcopiers that did their jobs with little regard for what went on around them,. But astechnology has learned to connect device to the internet and to each other, embeddedtechnology potential has grown. Suddenly it is and what actions those connections letthem perform. Cell phone companies figured that out a long time ago, which is whycell phones are cheap and the service, plans are expensive. It is not the phone itselfthat matters, but the connectivity to a vast network of other phones, other people andthe internet. Until you download software that lets you find a local restaurant ormange your finances. Let say you make freezers the big, expensive kind that grocerystores buy. You sell ne and you are done with that customer. When it brakes thecustomer calls a service person, who probably comes from somewhere other than yourcompany. But let us say that freezer knows that it is about to go on the fritz. Let saythree refrigerator alerts the customer before it breaks. Better yet, let us say the freezeralerts the manufacturer and you are able to send a service person to do preventativework and save a lot of haagen- dazs from melting. Embedded technology allows all ofthat to happen. You, the freezer company have transformed yourself from a productcompany to product and services company. The possibilities go beyond thatprogramming device to communicate with businesses can eliminate the need forcostly call centers. Copy machines that can order their own replacement cartridgeswill save businesses time and money. Remember, the fact the technology is embeddedis not what important, and neither is the device. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 3 APPLICATIONSTelecomMobile phone systems (handsets and base stations), modems, routersAutomotive applicationBraking system, Traction control, Airbag release system, Management units, andSteer-by-wire systems.Domestic applicationDishwasher, television, washing machines, microwave ovens, Video recorders,Security system, Garage door controllers, Calculators, Digital watches, VCRs, Digitalcameras, Remote Controls, TreadmillsRoboticFire fighting robot, Automatic floor cleaner, robotic armAerospace applicationFlight control system, Engine controllers, Autopilots, Passenger entertainment systemMedical equipmentAnesthesia monitoring system, ECG monitors, Pacemakers, Drug deliverysystems, MRI scannersDefense systemRadar systems, Fighter aircraft flight control system, Radio system, Missile guidancesystemsOffice automationLaser printers, Fax machines, Pagers, Cash registers, Gas pumps, Credit /Debit cardreaders, Thermostats, Grain analyzers DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 4 COMPONENTS LIST OF COMPONENTS USED Table No. 1.1 List of components Sr. no Equipment Quantity 1 IC 8051 MC 1 2 IC ULN 2003 1 3 Transformer 1 4 Voltage Regulator 7805 1 5 2 line LCD display 1 6 Stepper Motor 1 7 Crystal Oscillator 1 8 Switch 2 9 LED 2 10 Resistors(220Ω,4.7kΩ,10kΩ) 10 11 Capacitors(33pf,ceramic disk) 2 12 Diode 2 13 Buzzer 1 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 5COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 1) MICRO-CONTROLLER 8051 DESCRIPTIONThe IC 8051 is a low-power; high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The deviceis manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and iscompatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by aconventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPUwith Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel IC 8051 is a powerful microcomputerwhich provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embeddedcontrol applications. The IC 8051 provides the following standard features: 4K bytesof Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vectortwo-level interrupt architecture, full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator and clockcircuitry. In addition, the IC 8051 is designed with static logic for operation down tozero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The IdleMode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port andinterrupt system to continue functioning. Figure No. 1.1: Pin Diagram of 8051 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 6PROCESSORA processor is an electronic device capable of manipulating data in a way specified bya sequence of instructions. INSTRUCTIONSInstructions in a computer are binary numbers just like data. Different numbers, whenread and executed by a processor, cause different things to happen. The instructionsare also called opcodes or machine codes.Different bit patterns activate or deactivate different parts of the processing core.Every processor has its own instruction set varying in number, bit pattern andfunctionality.PROGRAMThe sequence of instructions is what constitutes a program. The sequence ofinstructions may be altered to suit the application.ASSEMBLY LANGUAGEWriting and understanding such programs in binary or hexadecimal form is verydifficult ,so each instructions is given a symbolic notation in English language calledas mnemonics. A program written in mnemonics Form is called an assembly languageprogram. But it must be converted into machine language for execution by processor. ASSEMBLERAn assembly language program should be converted to machine language forexecution by processor. Special software called ASSEMBLER converts a programwritten in mnemonics to its equivalent machine opcodes. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 7HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGEA high level language like C may be used to write programs for processors. Softwarecalled compiler converts this high level language program down to machine code.Ease of programming and portability.PIN DESCRIPTIONVCC (Pin 40)Provides voltage to the chip . +5VGND (Pin 20)GroundXTAL1 (Pin 19) and XTAL2 (Pin 18)Crystal Oscillator connected to pins 18, 19.Two capacitors of 30pF value. Time forone machine cycle:11.0592/12=1.085 ᄉ secs Fig No. 1.2: ResetRST (Pin 9)RESET pin 1. Active high. On applying a high pulse to this pin, microcontroller will reset and terminate all activities. 2. INPUT pin 3. Minimum 2 machine cycles required to make RESET 4. Value of registers after RESET DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANACOLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 8External Access: EA 31 0• Connected to VCC for on chip ROM 0• Connected to Ground for external ROM containing the code Input PinProgram Store Enable: PSEN 29 0• Output Pin 0• In case of external ROM with code it is connected to the OE pin of the ROMAddress Latch Enable: ALE 30 0• Output Pin. Active high 0• In case of external ROM ,ALE is used to de multiplex (PORT 0) the address and data bus by connecting to the G pin of 74LS373 chipI/O Port Pins and their Functions: ユ Four ports P0,P1,P2,P3 with 8 pins each, making a total of 32 input/output pins ユ On RESET all ports are configured as output. They need to be programmed to make them function as inputs PORT 0 0• Pins 32-39 0• Can be used as both Input or Output 0• External pull up resistors of 10K need to be connected 0• Dual role: 8051 multiplexes address and data through port 0 to save pins .AD0-AD7 0• ALE is used to de multiplex data and address bus DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANACOLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 9PORT 1 0• Pins 1 through 8 0• Both input or output 0• No dual function 0• Internal pull up registers 0• On RESET configured as outputPORT 2 0• Pins 21 through 28 0• No external pull up resistor required 0• Both input or output 0• Dual Function: Along with Port 0 used to provide the 16-Bit address for external memory. It provides higher address A8-A16PORT 3 0• Pins 10 through 17 0• No external pull up resistors required DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANACOLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 10 PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE Figure No. 1.3: Block Diagram of Microcontroller DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 11ALUThe Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) performs the internal arithmetic manipulation ofdata line processor. The instructions read and executed by the processor decide theoperations performed by the ALU and also control the flow of data between registersand ALU.Operations performed by the ALU are Addition , Subtraction , Not , AND , NAND ,OR , NOR , XOR , Shift Left/Right , Rotate Left/right , Compare etc. Some ALUsupports Multiplication and Division. Operands are generally transferred from tworegisters or from one register and memory location to ALU data inputs. The result ofthe operation is the placed back into a given destination register or memory locationfrom ALU output.REGISTERSRegisters are the internal storage for the processor. The number of registers variessignificantly between processor architectures. ユ WORKING REGISTERS Temporary storage during ALU Operations and data transfers. ユ INDEX REGISTERS Points to memory addresses. ユ STATUS REGISTERS Stores the current status of various flags denoting conditions resulting from various operations. ユ CONTROL REGISTERS Contains configuration bits that affect processor operation and the operating modes of various internal subsystems. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 12MEMORYMemory is used to hold data and program for the processor. ユ SRAM Volatile, fast, low capacity, expensive, requires lesser external support circuitry. ユ DRAM Volatile, relatively slow, highest capacity needs continuous refreshing. Hence require external circuitry. ユ OTP ROM One time programmable, used for shipping in final products. ユ EPROM Erasable programmable, UV Erasing, Used for system development and debugging. ユ EEPROM Electrically erasable and programmable, can be erased programmed in- circuit, Used for storing system parameters. ユ FLASH Electrically programmable & erasable, large capacity, organized as sectors.BUSESA bus is a physical group of signal lines that have a related function. Buses allow forthe transfer of electrical signals between different parts of the processor. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 13Processor buses are of three types: 0• Data bus 0• Address bus 0• Control busCONTROLLER LOGICProcessor brain decodes instructions and generate control signal for various sub units.It has full control over the clock distribution unit of processor.I/O PeripheralsThe I/O devices are used by the processor to communicate with the external world 0• Parallel Ports. 0• Serial Ports. 0• ADC/DAC. 2) ULN 2003 Figure No. 1.4: ULN 2003 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 14FEATURES 0- Output current 500mA per driver (600mA peak) 0- Output voltage 50V 0- Integrated suppression diodes for inductive loads 0- Outputs can be paralleled for higher current 0- TTL/CMOS/PMOS/DTL Compatible inputs 0- Inputs pinned opposite outputs to simplify Layout DESCRIPTIONThe ULN2001, ULN2002, ULN2003 and ULN2004 are high voltage, high currentDarlington Arrays each contain seven open collector Darlington pairs with commonemitters. Each Channel rated at 500mA and can withstand peak currents of 600mA.Suppression diodes are Included for inductive load driving and the inputs are pinnedopposite the outputs to simplify boardMAXIMUM RATING Table No. 1.2: Maximum Rating of ULN DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANACOLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 15WHY WE USE ULN 2003?Digital system and microcontroller pins lack sufficient current to drive the relay.While the stepper motor’s coil needs around 10ma to be energized, themicrocontroller’s pin can provide a maximum of 1-2 mA current. For this reason, weplace a driver. 3) VOLAGE REGULATORVoltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5, 12 and 15V) or variableoutput voltages. The maximum current they can pass also rates them. Negativevoltage regulators are available, mainly for use in dual supplies. Most regulatorsinclude some automatic protection from excessive current (over load protection) andoverheating (thermal protection). Many of fixed voltage regulator ICs has 3 leads.They include a hole for attaching a heat sink if necessary. Figure No. 1.5: 7805 Voltage RegulatorDESCRIPTIONThese voltage regulators are monolithic circuit integrated circuit designed as fixedvoltage regulators for a wide variety of applications including local, on cardregulation. These regulators employ internal current limiting, thermal shutdown, and DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 16safe-area compensation. With adequate heat sinking they can deliver output current inexcess of 1.0 A. Although designed primarily as a fixed voltage regulator, thesedevices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltage andcurrent.FEATURES 0• Output current in Excess of 1.0 A 0• No external component required 0• Internal thermal overload protection 0• Internal short circuit current limiting 0• Output transistor safe-area compensation 0• Output voltage offered in 2% and 4% tolerance 0• Available I n surface mount D2PAK and standard 3-lead transistor packages 0• Previous commercial temperature range has been extended to a junction temperature range of -40 degree C to +125 degree C. 4) STEPPER MOTOR Figure No. 1.6: 12-Volt 75 Ohm Unipolar Stepper Motor DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANACOLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 17GENERAL INFORMATIONA stepper motor system is an electro-mechanical rotary actuator that convertselectrical pulses into unique shaft rotations. This rotation is directly related to thenumber of pulses.Motion Control, in electronic terms, means to accurately control the movement of anobject based on speed, distance, load, inertia or a combination of all these factors.There are numerous types of motion control systems, including; Stepper Motor,Linear Step Motor, DC Brush, Brushless, Servo, Brushless Servo and more.Stepper motors are ideally suited for precision control. This motor can be operated inforward/reverse with controllable speed from a BASIC Stamp or any othermicrocontroller through a transistor driver circuit. Some of the applications for thismotor include educational experimentation, robotics and precision mechanical controlthe #27964 is a Unipolar (4 phase) 12 VDC, 150 mA motor that takes 3.6 degrees perstep.TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS 0· Phase resistance (Ohms): 75 0· Current (mA): 150 0· Phase Inductance (mH): 39 0· Detent torque (g-cm): 80 0· Holding Torque (g-cm): 600 0· Mounting hole space diagonal (in.): 1.73 0· Mounting hole (in.) 0.11 0· Shaft diameter (in.): 0.197 0· Shaft length (in.): 0.43 0· Motor Diameter (in.): 1.66·Motor height (in.): 1.35· Weight: 0.55 lbs. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
    • MINOR PROJECT: METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE 18 Figure No. 1.7: Basic Stepper Motor 5) LCD DISPLAY DESCRIPTION OF LCD DISPLAYThis is the first interfacing example for the Parallel Port. We will start with somethingsimple. This example doesnt use the Bi-directional feature found on newer ports, thusit should work with most, if not all Parallel Ports. It however doesnt show the use ofthe Status Port as an input. These LCD Modules are very common these days, and arequite simple to work with, as all the logic required to run them is on board. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM Figure No. 1.8: Schematic Diagram of LCD Display DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, KAITHAL
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