Chapter 1 history of lodging industry

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  • The term hospitality is derived from the French word hospice. A famous hospice was the Hospice du Beaune in Beaune, France. This was a long-term hospital support through the generosity of the wealthy. When people are traveling it is nice for businesses providing service provide them with hospitality.
  • During the Greek and Roman era people began to travel. Romans were famous for an extensive network of organized travel routes (highways). This lead to a development of business travel. Once the fall of the Roman Empire these routes fell into disrepair and became quite dangerous to use. Prior to the Medieval Period this was known as the dark ages. Very few people traveled and those who did, did so a great risks. As we approach the medieval period, business people who operated housing for travelers were considered crooks and were not held in high regard. In early day the Code of Hammurani made it illegal for landowners to charge for extra rooms in their homes. Penalty for charging travelers to use their homes was execution. The people who operated inns during this time were often retired gladiators that were used for slumming (prostitution) and drinking. These houses of sin were unsanitary and carried a bad reputation.
  • As people began to use other forms of transportation (other than on foot) traveling became a lot more popular.
  • During the Greek and Roman era people began to travel. Romans were famous for an extensive network of organized travel routes (highways). This lead to a development of business travel. Once the fall of the Roman Empire these routes fell into disrepair and became quite dangerous to use. Prior to the Medieval Period this was known as the dark ages. Very few people traveled and those who did, did so a great risks. As we approach the medieval period, business people who operated housing for travelers were considered crooks and were not held in high regard. In early day the Code of Hammurani made it illegal for landowners to charge for extra rooms in their homes. Penalty for charging travelers to use their homes was execution. The people who operated inns during this time were often retired gladiators that were used for slumming (prostitution) and drinking. These houses of sin were unsanitary and carried a bad reputation.
  • During the 16 th century coffee houses were a popular destination for the community to conduct official business. After the long period of the dark ages people were into drinking alcohol. In the 16 th century drinking was taboo, therefore the coffee houses were used to sober up the population.
  • During and shortly after the French Revolution, many French immigrants came to the US. Most had experience in culinary arts. The legendary figure during this time was Escoffier who was a world famous chef. One of his contributions to the Culinary Industry is the organization of chefs in a kitchen. This hierarchy of cooks is known as the Brigade System. Each category of chef has a specific title which when used today we know exactly what types of food he/she is responsible for producing/supervising. Boulanger was an early vender of food. During his time there was not a name for the type of business that he had. He sold a soup based food that he called restorantes (which translates into restore the body). If is believed that the popularity of his soups led to the term restaurant. Which today are businesses that restore the body with food.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As more French immigrants came to the US and the ability of the Elite to travel back to Europe led to a cultural food revolution. Eating in Restaurants was for only the high society and the educational elites. Most hotels and restaurants were grand affairs borrowing the style of the old world (Europe) Cesar Ritz was a famous hotelier and he and Escoffier operated some of the finest hotels in Europe and latter in the US. The early 1900’s is called the grand period of hotels because so many large hotels were built during this period. Delmonico was an example of the early restaurants found in the US. Very expensive and very pretentious. This restaurant was operated for over 100 years by the same family. As more people had the opportunity and means to go eat in restaurants they had difficulty reading/ understanding the menus of the early restaurants because they were written in French. Delmonico’s is credited to have created a bilingual menu so as not to offend their guests who could not read or understand French.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • These are some of the early chain of restaurants that were developed in the US. White Castle is still operating, Howard Johnson’s is now a hotel company and Marriott Hot Shoppes are defunct (this was the precursor business for the Marriott Hotel Company).
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • As people migrated to the New World, the US was settled by peoples from different parts of the world. Each with their own words for hotels (places to eat, drink and sleep). When traveling to different parts of the country today you can still see evidence of these terms in use.
  • Chapter 1 history of lodging industry

    1. 1. History of the Hospitality Industry Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    2. 2. History of the Hospitality Industry Overview  The history of the hospitality industry dates all the way back to the Colonial Period in the late 1700s. Things have changed quite a bit since then; the hospitality industry has experienced significant development over the years as it has faced World Wars, The Depression and various social changes. The industry as we know it today began to take form in the early 1950s and 60s, leading the way for growth into the dynamic industry we know today. Goal  To understand the factors that influenced the development of the hospitality industry. Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    3. 3. Objectives At the end of this lesson students will be able to: Define hospitality and describe its characteristics Identify and describe the characteristics of various historical periods Identify the multiple factors influencing the hospitality industry Chronicle the developments in the hospitality industry (from early beginnings to present) Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    4. 4. Hospitality • From the French word “hospice” – to provide for the weary – take care of those traveling Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    5. 5. Early Hospitality • Greek/Roman culture – Noted as early as 40 BC – Social and religious purposes • Roman businessmen traveled • Romans were the first pleasure travelers • After fall of roman empire, public hospitality fell to religious orders Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    6. 6. Medieval Period • English travelers • Inns were actually private homes • Nobility stayed in monasteries • Stagecoach became favored transportation Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    7. 7. Colonial Period • Public coach – Put into effect around 1650 • Coach inns – Built along routes • Inns – A sleeping accommodations (a facility in which food and drink were served and a shelter for both the drivers and horses) Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    8. 8. Renaissance Period (16th Century) • High demand for inns and taverns • 1st hotel - Hotel de Henry IV 1788 – built at cost of $17,500 – 60 beds • Coffee houses Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    9. 9. The French Revolution • Changed the course of culinary history • Auguste Escoffier – brigade system • M. Boulanger – “father of modern restaurant” – called soup he sold “restorantes” • Revolution caused some of the chefs to come to the New World Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    10. 10. The New World (18th & Early 20th Century) • Introduction of railroads • Depot hotels – Began to arise in the early 1800s. Most cases hotels were located in train stations. • Transportation and Lodging could not be separated Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    11. 11. The New World (Late 18th & Early 20th Century) • Spas and resorts – Believed to be medicinal or healthful • Saratoga Springs – Famous spa in New York • Famous spas: – Spa at Baden, Germany – Marienbad, Bohemia – Vichy, France Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    12. 12. The New World (Late 18th & Early 20th Century) • Famous resorts: – French Rivera – Homestead in Hot Springs – Niagara Falls, the Canadian Horseshoe falls – Greenbrier, White Sulfur Spring Resorts in West Virginia Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    13. 13. The New World (Late 18th & Early 20th Century) • Thomas Cook (1841) – An English man – Considered as the 1st travel agent taking groups of North Americans in 1856 to hotels on his “Cook’s Tour of Europe” Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    14. 14. The New World (Late 18th & Early 20th Century) • Tremont Hotel – Opened in Boston in 19th century – 1st luxury hotel – Boasted the 1st toilets and private bedrooms with locks on door Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    15. 15. The New World (Late 18th & Early 20th Century) • Cesar Ritz (1889) – Famous Swiss hotelier – Manager of the Savoy in London • Tremont Hotel – Opened in Boston in 19th century – 1st luxury hotel – Boasted the 1st toilets and private bedrooms with locks on door Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    16. 16. The New World (Late 18th & Early 20th Century) • Ellsworth Milton Statler – Opened his 1st hotel in Buffalo, New York in 1907 • Conrad Hilton – “King of Innkeepers” – Opened his 1st hotel in Texas, the Mobley in 1919 – Dallas Hilton (1925) – Hilton bought the Statler Chain in 1954 Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    17. 17. The New World (Late 18th & Early 20th Century) • John Willard Marriot Sr. – Founder of the Marriot hotel chain • Kemmon Wilson – Founder of Holiday Inn – Opened the 1st Holiday Inn Motel in Memphis in 1952 – Holiday Inn went international in 1960 Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    18. 18. The New World (Late 18th & Early 20th Century) • Tourist courts – Automobile led the hotel industry into a booming business in 1920’s • Motel – Coined from “motor hotel” – 10 feet by 10 feet wooden cabins – Owners of these motels expanded to 15 cabins and then called as “tourist courts” Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    19. 19. Nineteenth Century • 1898 Savoy Hotel opened in London – General Manager was Cesar Ritz – Chef was Auguste Escoffier • Delmonico’s in New York City – expensive – 1827 - 1923 – Bilingual menu Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    20. 20. Advent of Air Travel (The 20th Century) • Air Travel – It was made available to masses • Conventions and Conferences – Became an integral part of successful of commerce – Business traveler became the most important lodging guests Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    21. 21. Twentieth Century Restaurants • 1921 White Castle • 1927 Howard Johnsons • 1927 Marriott Hot Shoppe • 1965 TGI Friday’s • 1982 Chili’s Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    22. 22. The Industry Today • Campgrounds – Appeal to travelers who prefer to commune with nature while on vacation • Treetops – Located in Africa, features rooms in a huge tree from which guests can watch wild animals feed at night Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos
    23. 23. The Industry Today • Capsule Hotel, Kapuseru Hoteru – Hotel system in Japan of extremely dense occupancy – 1st Capsule Hotel was in Osaka Copyright © 2012 by C & E Publishing Inc. and Buen Santos

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