th
  4                 Century
             Heretics and Councils
                                                        ...
Division of Roman Empire
Constantine and the End of Persecutions
Diocletian (285-305)                              Nero (64 A.D.)
     Empire divid...
Imperial Power
•Ascendency of Alexandria
     •Heraclas, bishop 232-248
          •Followed Origen as head of school
     ...
First Ecumenical Council 325
Position       Chief        Distinguishing Belief
             Proponent
  Arian        Arius...
•The Theologies
     •Lucian of Antioch 9240-311/312)
          •Born in Samosata
          •Rejected the Alexandrine Herm...
•Originally called by the Emperor to be held in Ancyra
    •Nicaea was the home of the Imperial Palace
    •Called to sett...
From Nicaea to Constantinople
Constantine’s Rehabilitation of the Arians
•Arius banished to Gaul, became less influential
...
Dyohypostatic Theology
    •Eusebius of Caesarea came closest to advocating the fullness of the theology
    •One God, who...
•Miahypostatic Theology
     •Represents the strict monotheism of Christianity.
           •There is one God, who is one s...
•The Eusebian Party
     •Dyohypostatic Theology
     •Eusebius of Caesarea (260/264 – 336)
          •Taught by Pamphilus...
•Eusebius of Nicomedia (d341)
    •Student of Lucian of Antioch
    •Relative of Emperor Constantine
         •During reig...
•Paulinus of Tyre
     •Bishop of Tyre
     •Hosted Eusebius of Caesarea
     •Christ was created
          •Second God
  ...
•Marcellus on Ancyra
     •Attended Nicaea
     •Miahypostatic
     •Led the charge against the Eusebians and Semi-Arians
...
Arian Councils and a Pagan Emperor
•Council of Sirmium (359)
•(Western) Council of Rimini (359)
             •The Formula ...
Cappadocian Fathers
•Damasus, Bishop of Rome
     •Began to use the Greek Ousia instead of the Latin Substantia
•Credited ...
Basil of Caesarea
•Attended the Council of Constantiople in 360
     •Sided with the Eusebians on homoiousia
     •Stood a...
Gregory of Nyssa

•Basil’s brother
•Theology
     •Compared the Father, Son, and Spirit to Peter, James and John
         ...
Gregory of Nazianzus
Friend to Basil and Nyssa
Theology
     Focused on the Spirit as a hypostasis
          Father seen i...
2nd Ecumenical Council 381
•Council of Constantinople (381)
    •Called by Emperor Theodosius to provide succession to Con...
4th Century Development of the Trinity
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4th Century Development of the Trinity

  1. 1. th 4 Century Heretics and Councils - quot;The whole world groaned and was astonished to find itself Arian.quot; Jerome, 4th century Bible Scholar
  2. 2. Division of Roman Empire
  3. 3. Constantine and the End of Persecutions Diocletian (285-305) Nero (64 A.D.) Empire divided into four sections ruled by Domitian (c.90-96) two Augusti and two Caesars (generals) Trajan (98-117) Christianity attacked (10-20% of Hadrian (117-138) population) Marcus Aurelius (161-181) Constantine (311-337) Septimus Severus (202-211) Victory over Maxentius at Milvian Bridge Maximus the Thracian (235-251) – Hoc Signo Vinces Decius (249-251) Rules eastern empire from Constantinople Valerian (257-260) A Christian? Diocletian / Galerius (303-311) A Pragmatist and Opportunist
  4. 4. Imperial Power •Ascendency of Alexandria •Heraclas, bishop 232-248 •Followed Origen as head of school •First Bishop in Church History to be called ‘Pope.’ •Donatism •Rigorists •Held that those who denied the faith could not give sacraments •Considered themselves the true Church •Asked for Imperial help •Roman Emperor intervened on behalf the recognized Church
  5. 5. First Ecumenical Council 325 Position Chief Distinguishing Belief Proponent Arian Arius Christ of a different (heteros) substance (ousios) than Father Semi-Arian Eusebius of Christ of a similar substance Caesarea (homoiousios) as the Father Orthodox Athanasius Christ of same substance (homoousios) as the Father
  6. 6. •The Theologies •Lucian of Antioch 9240-311/312) •Born in Samosata •Rejected the Alexandrine Hermeneutics •Denied the eternity of the Logos •Christ was a creature •Arius •Student of Lucian of Antioch •Elder in the Church at Alexandra •Expelled by Bishop Alexander for heresy •Denied that Christ was God •Christ was a creature of a different substance •The Word was created before time began •Word was not always existent
  7. 7. •Originally called by the Emperor to be held in Ancyra •Nicaea was the home of the Imperial Palace •Called to settle several matters •The Arian question regarding the relationship between God the Father and Jesus; i.e. are the Father and Son one in purpose only or also one in being; •The date of celebration of the Paschal/Easter observation •Alexandria was given authority to set the date each year •The Meletian schism •The validity of baptism by heretics; •The status of the lapsed in the persecution under Licinius. •Emperor called all 1800 bishops •250-318 participated •22 were supporters of Arius •All but 2 Bishops signed the statement
  8. 8. From Nicaea to Constantinople Constantine’s Rehabilitation of the Arians •Arius banished to Gaul, became less influential •Eusebian Party became Semi-Arians •Began to persecute Nicene Bishops on charges not related to orthodoxy
  9. 9. Dyohypostatic Theology •Eusebius of Caesarea came closest to advocating the fullness of the theology •One God, who is the beginning, or first principle - the cause of everything else that exists •God is eternal and unbegotten, unknowable, and best described by negatives, such as without source •This God is the Father, the only He •Along with this hypostasis (Person) there exists another hypostasis, the Son (Word, Image, Wisdom, Power) •The Father is the source of the Son’s being, but not be division or effluence •The Son’s relationship of dependence excludes predicating “eternity” of him •The son is subordinate to the Father and acts as Mediator •Attributes the Old Testament Theophanies to the Son. •The Incarnation was nothing new, but a continuation of the work as revealer, teacher, and model •Salvation becomes an order of will due to an impartation of knowledge •There is no assumption of the human race by the Godhead •The Incarnation, the cross, and the resurrection results in no metaphysical change
  10. 10. •Miahypostatic Theology •Represents the strict monotheism of Christianity. •There is one God, who is one substance: one hypostasis, one ousia, or for some, one prosopon •God speaks the Word, His Son, and sends forth His spirit •‘One’ is safe; ‘two’ is dangerous - plurality is located in the Incarnation. •The Son is God as the Father is God •The Incarnation is decisive, marking a new stage in the existence of the Logos in which God is united with a human nature •It is the Incarnation that is subordinate; all scripture denoting a subordination is assigned to the Flesh of the Incarnation •Distinction occurs between the Uncreated and the created - the uncreated is eternal while the created is temporal •Both the Word and the creatures proceed from God, but in different ways. The Son is begotten; creatures are from God’s will. •Salvation is a divine act, by which humanity can become partakers of the divine nature. •Athanasius’ axiom of ‘God became man so that man might become divine’ is representative of his early loyalty to this theology
  11. 11. •The Eusebian Party •Dyohypostatic Theology •Eusebius of Caesarea (260/264 – 336) •Taught by Pamphilus •Taught by Origen •Martyred 310 •Bishop of Caesarea •Protected Arius •Defended the ‘priority’ of the Father •Defended Arius to Alexander •Joined by Bishops of Laodicea and Tyre •Excommunicated at the Synod of Antioch in 325 •Synod cited the similarities with Arius •Believed in realities behind ‘Father’ and ‘Son’ •Denied co-existence of Father and Son •One must precede the other •Son is not the ‘one True God’ •Son is ‘another God’ •Attended the Council of Nicaea •Signed but after delay •Led charge to depose those that had excommunicated him
  12. 12. •Eusebius of Nicomedia (d341) •Student of Lucian of Antioch •Relative of Emperor Constantine •During reign as Bishop, Arians held imperial positions •Would use Rome to enforce Arianism in 329 •Exiled the Miahypostatics after Nicaea •Baptized Emperor Constantine on his deathbed •Defended Arius to the Emperor •Exiled for 3 years for Arianism •Wrote Defense in 320/321 •Denied that the Son was unbegotten •Of a different ousia than the Father •Counted 2 in the plurality of the Godhead
  13. 13. •Paulinus of Tyre •Bishop of Tyre •Hosted Eusebius of Caesarea •Christ was created •Second God •More Recent Gods than the Father •A more human God •Asterius the Sophist •Born in Cappadocia •Suffered persecution •Denied the Faith •Rejoined the Church •The Party’s systematic theologian •Wrote Syntagmation (little book) (320/1) •In God a Wisdom other than Christ •Never mentions two Gods •The Father is Ingenerate •Christ is created •Used as an instrument in creation •United only in wills (symphonia)
  14. 14. •Marcellus on Ancyra •Attended Nicaea •Miahypostatic •Led the charge against the Eusebians and Semi-Arians •Athanasius first supported him •Deposed by the Emperor in 336 •Restored upon death of Emperor in 337 •Deposed again in 339 •Left for Rome to seek help from Julian, Bishop of Rome •Declared orthodox by Rome in 340 •Dedication Council in Antioch deposed him again in 341 •Council of Sardica, 343 •West supported Marcellus •East considered Marcellus a heretic •Break with Athanasius in 347 •Still supported by the West, the Egyptians and some in Asia Minor in 370 •Athanasius refused to support, or attack, Marcellus •End of Life 371-374 •Held communion with churches in Asia Minor, Greece, and Macedonia •Accepted by Athanasius as Orthodox
  15. 15. Arian Councils and a Pagan Emperor •Council of Sirmium (359) •(Western) Council of Rimini (359) •The Formula of Sirmium returned to the extreme views of Arius •Considered a defeat for Orthodoxy •Removed the terms consubstantial •Favored ‘scriptural’ words •(Eastern) Council of Seleucia (359) •Held that to homoiousian theology •Dissolved when both sides excommunicated each other •(First) Council of Constantinople (360) •Extreme Arians defeated, with the Emperor siding with the Semi-Arians •Julian the Apostate •Roman Emperor 355-363 •Pagan Emperor •Fostered plurality of religions in the Empire •Attempted to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem •Removed Christianity as state religion •Recalled all exiled bishops •Athanasius •The Tome to the Antiochenes (362) •Later battles
  16. 16. Cappadocian Fathers •Damasus, Bishop of Rome •Began to use the Greek Ousia instead of the Latin Substantia •Credited with creating the final Trinitarian view of the Godhead •Created the Formula three hypostaseis in one ousia •A Compromise between (Semi-) Arianism (East) and Modalism (West) •Nicaea was accused of being too modalistic
  17. 17. Basil of Caesarea •Attended the Council of Constantiople in 360 •Sided with the Eusebians on homoiousia •Stood against Nicaea originally •Succeeded Eusebius at Bishop of Caesarea in 370 •Combated the rise of Arianism •Maintained the homoiousian doctrine •Thought homoousian was Modalist •Denied the literal understanding of Hebrews 1.3 •Asked Rome to settle disputes
  18. 18. Gregory of Nyssa •Basil’s brother •Theology •Compared the Father, Son, and Spirit to Peter, James and John •Believed that incorporality allowed Father, Son and Spirit to occupy the same place at the same time
  19. 19. Gregory of Nazianzus Friend to Basil and Nyssa Theology Focused on the Spirit as a hypostasis Father seen in OT, Son in NT, Spirit in the Church Allowed that Scripture did not clearly set out that the Spirit was God Maintained homoousian doctrine Developed the framework of the three hypostasis in one ousia Convened the Second Ecumenical Council Became chair upon death of Meletio of Antioch
  20. 20. 2nd Ecumenical Council 381 •Council of Constantinople (381) •Called by Emperor Theodosius to provide succession to Constantinople •Gave office to Gregory of Nazianzus •Condemned Apollinarianism •Enlarged Nicene Creed •The Emperor issued the imperial decree dismissing any non-Trinitarian bishop from office •Effectively ended Arianism in all forms

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