Us History Chapter 5
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Notes forChapter 5 US History class for Mr. Polomis

Notes forChapter 5 US History class for Mr. Polomis

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Us History Chapter 5 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Western Crossroads Mr. Polomis US History Chapter 5
  • 2. Native American Resistance (Sec 1)
    • Indian Country
      • By 1850, 360,000 Native Americans lived west of the Mississippi River
      • Some were confined on reservations in Oklahoma.
      • 1851 – The US gov’t promised the Sioux, Cheyenne, and other tribes control of the plains with the Treaty of Fort Laramie
        • In return the US got the right to build roads and forts; Indians could not attack westward settlers
        • The gov’t broke their end of the treaty
        • 1000’s of non Indians went onto Indian territory in search of mineral wealth and fertile land
  • 3. Continued…
      • More Indians were forced to reservations
        • The job of running the reservations fell into a gov’t agency called the Bureau of Indian Affairs run through the War Dept.
  • 4. Years of Struggle
    • Plains tribes fought back against the US army’s 20,000 soldiers
      • 4,000 were African Americans nicknamed “Buffalo soldiers”
    • Sand Creek Massacre – 1864 Colorado Territory
      • Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle and his followers surrendered to the US gov’t
      • Colonel John Chivington attacked the Indian camp when the men were out hunting
      • The US gov’t killed some 200 Cheyenne women and children
  • 5. Continued…
    • 1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge and the 2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie made the Sioux and Plains Indians move to reservations
  • 6. Sioux Resistance
    • US government wanted the Sioux’s sacred ground the Black Hills because gold was discovered there
    • Sioux leader sitting Bull urged his tribe to fight
    • Crazy Horse joined the fight with Sitting bull
      • Made their camp with 2,000 men on the little Bighorn River
    • June 25, 1876 George Armstrong Custer attacked the Sioux tribe
      • Less than an hour Custer and his battalion were killed
  • 7. The Ghost Dance
    • A Paiute holy man named Wovoka began a Ghost Dance religion on the reservation
    • Sioux living on the reservations began to wear “ghost shirts” designed to stop bullets
    • Some Sioux left the reservation and the U.S. Army were sent to capture them
    • The two sides met at Wounded Knee Creek
    • 300 Native Americans were killed; 30 U.S. soldiers died
    • * Wounded Knee Massacre was the last Indian Wars on the Plains
  • 8. Conflict in the Far West
    • Navajos Indians
    • U.S. government destroyed their homes and sheep herds were killed
    • Were forced to Bosque Redono, a reservation in eastern New Mexico
    • This became known as the Long Walk
  • 9. Nez Perces Indians
    • Lived in NE Oregon
    • Were forced off their land and they tried to escape to Canada
    • Their leader was Chief Joseph and they were captured 30miles from the Canadian border
  • 10. Apache Indians
    • Fought reservation life in New Mexico and Arizona
    • Their leader was Geronimo
    • His surrender marked the end of armed resistance to the reservation system
  • 11. Rethinking Indian Policy
    • People became outraged at the way Native Americans were forced off their land and put on reservations
      • Helen Hunt Jackson wrote a book A Century of Dishonor about the govt broken promises
      • Sarah Winnemucca – A Paiute Indian who wrote a book Life Among the Piutes
    • Govt officials tried to make Native Americans assimilate, or adapt to “white” America
      • Set up school and farms for Indians to attend
      • Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania was one example of a school
  • 12. continued
    • Govt wanted Indians to give up tribal ownership of land in favor of private ownership
    • Congress passed the Dawes General Allotment Act in 1887 that established private ownership of Indian land
  • 13. Section 2 Western Farmers and Cattle Ranchers
    • Economic Development of the West
      • People moved west for free or cheap land
    • Homestead Act – gave 160 acres to any citizen willing to live on the Great Plains for 5 years
    • Pacific Railway Act – gave land to railroad companies to build a transcontinental railroad
    • Morrill Act – gave land to states to help finance agricultural colleges which would train young farmers
  • 14. Continued…
    • Companies built 4 transcontinental railroads across the U.S.
    • 3 groups of people moved west after the Civil War
      • Easterners
      • African Americans
      • Immigrants from Europe and Asia
      • Black settlers were known as Exodusters (settled in Kansas)
  • 15. Western Farms
    • Few trees, built houses out of sod
    • U.S. Dept of Agriculture helped farmers adapt to the plains environment
      • Their agents also taught dry farming techniques – planting and harvesting methods that conserve moisture
      • New farm equipment also helped farming on the Plains
    • Bonanza farms were created out west - Large scale farms usually owned by a large company and run like a factory
      • These farms were broken up in the 1890’s because family farms were better at keeping the costs down.
  • 16. The Cattle Boom
    • New breed of cattle called a Texas Longhorn
      • Breed of Spanish and English cattle
      • These cattle could survive long drives, treks of hundreds of miles to a railhead – town along the railroad
    • Govt allowed ranchers to use common grazing land or open range farming
    • Cattle Boom ended because of…
      • Overgrazing
      • Invention of barbed wire (patented by Glidden)
      • Bad weather on the Plains
  • 17. Sec. 3 A Mining Boom
    • Gold was discovered in Colorado and Nevada
    • Also discovered in Nevada was the Comstock Lode - a rich silver vein that was the center of frantic prospecting
    • Miners in Arizona used the patio process- used mercury to extract silver from the ore.
  • 18. Mining in the far North
    • Miners began to move to Canada, this made the country of Russia worry because they owned Alaska
    • 1867- Russia offered to sell Alaska to the United States for about 2 cents an acre
    • Americans thought the purchase worthless and called it “Sewards Folly” – named after the Sec. of State Willard Seward
    • In 1896 gold was discovered in the Klondike area of Alaska
  • 19. Mining Camps
    • Mining camps were dominated by men at first and violent, but with prosperity came families, community life and law and order
    • Example- Denver, Colorado
  • 20. Mining as Big Business
    • In order to get ore, miners used one of two methods
    • Hydraulic mining- used water pressure to wash away mountains of gravel and expose the minerals underneath
    • Hard rock mining- sinking deep shafts to get ore locked in veins of quartz
    • These methods were expensive, so big business dominated mining
    • Workers formed unions to protect working conditions
    • The environment suffered because miners were concerned with only getting rich.