Us History Chapter 5

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Notes forChapter 5 US History class for Mr. Polomis

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Us History Chapter 5

  1. 1. The Western Crossroads Mr. Polomis US History Chapter 5
  2. 2. Native American Resistance (Sec 1) <ul><li>Indian Country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1850, 360,000 Native Americans lived west of the Mississippi River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were confined on reservations in Oklahoma. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1851 – The US gov’t promised the Sioux, Cheyenne, and other tribes control of the plains with the Treaty of Fort Laramie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In return the US got the right to build roads and forts; Indians could not attack westward settlers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The gov’t broke their end of the treaty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1000’s of non Indians went onto Indian territory in search of mineral wealth and fertile land </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Continued… <ul><ul><li>More Indians were forced to reservations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The job of running the reservations fell into a gov’t agency called the Bureau of Indian Affairs run through the War Dept. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Years of Struggle <ul><li>Plains tribes fought back against the US army’s 20,000 soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4,000 were African Americans nicknamed “Buffalo soldiers” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sand Creek Massacre – 1864 Colorado Territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle and his followers surrendered to the US gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonel John Chivington attacked the Indian camp when the men were out hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The US gov’t killed some 200 Cheyenne women and children </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Continued… <ul><li>1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge and the 2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie made the Sioux and Plains Indians move to reservations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sioux Resistance <ul><li>US government wanted the Sioux’s sacred ground the Black Hills because gold was discovered there </li></ul><ul><li>Sioux leader sitting Bull urged his tribe to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Crazy Horse joined the fight with Sitting bull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made their camp with 2,000 men on the little Bighorn River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June 25, 1876 George Armstrong Custer attacked the Sioux tribe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than an hour Custer and his battalion were killed </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Ghost Dance <ul><li>A Paiute holy man named Wovoka began a Ghost Dance religion on the reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Sioux living on the reservations began to wear “ghost shirts” designed to stop bullets </li></ul><ul><li>Some Sioux left the reservation and the U.S. Army were sent to capture them </li></ul><ul><li>The two sides met at Wounded Knee Creek </li></ul><ul><li>300 Native Americans were killed; 30 U.S. soldiers died </li></ul><ul><li>* Wounded Knee Massacre was the last Indian Wars on the Plains </li></ul>
  8. 8. Conflict in the Far West <ul><li>Navajos Indians </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. government destroyed their homes and sheep herds were killed </li></ul><ul><li>Were forced to Bosque Redono, a reservation in eastern New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>This became known as the Long Walk </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nez Perces Indians <ul><li>Lived in NE Oregon </li></ul><ul><li>Were forced off their land and they tried to escape to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Their leader was Chief Joseph and they were captured 30miles from the Canadian border </li></ul>
  10. 10. Apache Indians <ul><li>Fought reservation life in New Mexico and Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>Their leader was Geronimo </li></ul><ul><li>His surrender marked the end of armed resistance to the reservation system </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rethinking Indian Policy <ul><li>People became outraged at the way Native Americans were forced off their land and put on reservations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helen Hunt Jackson wrote a book A Century of Dishonor about the govt broken promises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarah Winnemucca – A Paiute Indian who wrote a book Life Among the Piutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Govt officials tried to make Native Americans assimilate, or adapt to “white” America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up school and farms for Indians to attend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania was one example of a school </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. continued <ul><li>Govt wanted Indians to give up tribal ownership of land in favor of private ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed the Dawes General Allotment Act in 1887 that established private ownership of Indian land </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 2 Western Farmers and Cattle Ranchers <ul><li>Economic Development of the West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People moved west for free or cheap land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homestead Act – gave 160 acres to any citizen willing to live on the Great Plains for 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Railway Act – gave land to railroad companies to build a transcontinental railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Morrill Act – gave land to states to help finance agricultural colleges which would train young farmers </li></ul>
  14. 14. Continued… <ul><li>Companies built 4 transcontinental railroads across the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>3 groups of people moved west after the Civil War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easterners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants from Europe and Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black settlers were known as Exodusters (settled in Kansas) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Western Farms <ul><li>Few trees, built houses out of sod </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Dept of Agriculture helped farmers adapt to the plains environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their agents also taught dry farming techniques – planting and harvesting methods that conserve moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New farm equipment also helped farming on the Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bonanza farms were created out west - Large scale farms usually owned by a large company and run like a factory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These farms were broken up in the 1890’s because family farms were better at keeping the costs down. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Cattle Boom <ul><li>New breed of cattle called a Texas Longhorn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breed of Spanish and English cattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These cattle could survive long drives, treks of hundreds of miles to a railhead – town along the railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Govt allowed ranchers to use common grazing land or open range farming </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle Boom ended because of… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overgrazing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention of barbed wire (patented by Glidden) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad weather on the Plains </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Sec. 3 A Mining Boom <ul><li>Gold was discovered in Colorado and Nevada </li></ul><ul><li>Also discovered in Nevada was the Comstock Lode - a rich silver vein that was the center of frantic prospecting </li></ul><ul><li>Miners in Arizona used the patio process- used mercury to extract silver from the ore. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mining in the far North <ul><li>Miners began to move to Canada, this made the country of Russia worry because they owned Alaska </li></ul><ul><li>1867- Russia offered to sell Alaska to the United States for about 2 cents an acre </li></ul><ul><li>Americans thought the purchase worthless and called it “Sewards Folly” – named after the Sec. of State Willard Seward </li></ul><ul><li>In 1896 gold was discovered in the Klondike area of Alaska </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mining Camps <ul><li>Mining camps were dominated by men at first and violent, but with prosperity came families, community life and law and order </li></ul><ul><li>Example- Denver, Colorado </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mining as Big Business <ul><li>In order to get ore, miners used one of two methods </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic mining- used water pressure to wash away mountains of gravel and expose the minerals underneath </li></ul><ul><li>Hard rock mining- sinking deep shafts to get ore locked in veins of quartz </li></ul><ul><li>These methods were expensive, so big business dominated mining </li></ul><ul><li>Workers formed unions to protect working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>The environment suffered because miners were concerned with only getting rich. </li></ul>

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