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Import water hungsy

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  • 1. Should Hong Kong continue to import water from Mainland China? MPA POLS 7050 Polly, Hung Sui Ying (10430385)
  • 2. Water distribution in the world
    • 2.5% fresh water
    • 97.5% salt water
    70% is frozen in ice caps and glaciers.                 
  • 3. Fresh water is limited!
  • 4. Main water sources in HK
    • Potable water
    • Import raw water from Dongjiang (the East River)—70-80%
    • Local catchments (mainly from reservoirs)—20-30%
    • Non-potable water
    • Seawater (for toilet flushing—80% of the population)
  • 5. Depend highly on ONE major source!
  • 6. Present situation in the mainland
    • ‘Pollution leads to muddy tap water’ China Daily dated 15 th November 2011
    • ‘Business caught in grip of mainland water crisis’ SCMP 14 th November, 2011
    Rapid industrial development Water pollution
  • 7. Pollution along Yangtze River http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=391&catid=10&subcatid=66#3303
  • 8. Illegal dumping of toxic chromium waste in Yunnan… is likely to cause cancer in local residents. ?
  • 9. Are we alone?
  • 10. Threats worldwide
    • USA: ‘Texas water supply for the future is uncertain’ Houston Chronicle dated 14 th November 2011
    • ‘ Israel has suffered from a chronic water shortage for years.’ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/scarcity.html
    • Water supply in Australia is extremely variable. http://www.3green.com.au/webapps/i/65684/74079/82536
    • Singapore is lack of natural water sources.
  • 11. Unstable fresh water supply! Polluted water sources!
  • 12. The scarcity of water is a world problem! War to compete for clean water?
  • 13. Any alternatives?
    • Education on water conservation.
    • Water reclamation.
    • Seawater desalination.
  • 14. Singapore
  • 15. Water supply in Singapore
    • Aims
    • Diversify water sources.
    • Ensure the future generations will continue to enjoy sustainable water supply.
    • http://www.pub.gov.sg/products/NEWater/Pages/default.aspx
  • 16. Four national taps in Singapore
    • Water from local catchment areas .
    • Imported water .
    • Reclaimed water (known as NEWater) .
    • Desalinated water .
  • 17. NEWater in Singapore
    • NEWater 30%.
    • NEWater is high-grade reclaimed water produced from treated used water.
  • 18. Quality water
    • Singapore’s tap water is well within the World Health Organisation drinking water guidelines, and is suitable for drinking without any further filtration.
    • Singaporeans have enjoyed stable and good quality water for four decades.
  • 19. Australia
  • 20. Threats
    • Australia is a dry island continent - rainfall and consequently river flow and groundwater recharge are extremely variable.
    • Access to an adequate supply of good quality water is essential to the economic and social well being of all Australians.
    • http://www.3green.com.au/webapps/i/65684/74079/82536
  • 21. Strategies
    • Water conservation
    • Water reclamation
    • Seawater desalination
    • Installation of water saving devices in households.
  • 22. Advantages of the policies in Singapore and Australia
    • Ensure stable water supply.
    • Ensure the quality of drinking water.
    • Maintain the health of the general public.
    • Reduce medical expense.
  • 23. Should Hong Kong continue to import water from Mainland China?
  • 24. Water demand in Hong Kong
    • In 2007—951 million cubic meters
    • In 2030—1,315 million cubic meters
  • 25. Hong Kong needs to diversify its water sources! What can we learn from other countries?
  • 26.  
  • 27. Total Water Management since 2005
    • Managing all water resources in all aspects.
    • Ensure sustainable use of water resources.
    • In 2004—Pilot Desalination Plant.
    • In 2005—Ngong Ping Pilot Scheme on Reclaimed Water & Shek Wu Hui Demonstration Scheme on Reclaimed Water.
  • 28. Shek Wu Hui Sewage Treatment Works
    • Provides residents in in Sheung Shui and Fanling with reclaimed water for toilet flushing and other non-potable uses.
  • 29. Water Demand Management
    • To enhance public education on water conservation.
    • To promote use of water saving devices.
    • To enhance water leakage control.
    • To extend use of seawater for toilet flushing.
  • 30. Water Supply Management
    • To strengthen protection of water resources.
    • To actively consider water reclamation.
    • To develop the option of seawater desalination.
  • 31. Water Saving Devices
  • 32. Rain barrel http://www.watersavers.com/rain-barrels/prism-rain-barrel---54-108-gal_8_8.php
  • 33. Rain barrels
    • To increase local catchments.
    • Install at the roofs of buildings.
    • Catch rain water during raining seasons.
    • Store water for toilet flushing.
    • Switch to seawater when rainwater is exhausted.
  • 34. Waterless Urinal System http://waterlessurinalsystem.com/desert-water-efficient-urinal.html
  • 35. Waterless Urinal System
    • In public toilets.
    • S afe on our precious waterways and for people.
    • Keep your washroom odour-free.
    • Quick and easy to clean.
    • Pleasant to use.
  • 36. Water reclamation in Hong Kong Opportunities!
  • 37. Now
    • Use the reclaimed water mainly for toilet flushing and landscape irrigation.
  • 38. Tomorrow
    • The HK Housing Society is considering to rebuild 6 to 8 housing estates (over 40 years old). (Ming Pao 20 th November, 2011)
  • 39.  
  • 40. ‘ With one small change, you can make a big difference.’

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