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Import water hungsy
 

Import water hungsy

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    Import water hungsy Import water hungsy Presentation Transcript

    • Should Hong Kong continue to import water from Mainland China? MPA POLS 7050 Polly, Hung Sui Ying (10430385)
    • Water distribution in the world
      • 2.5% fresh water
      • 97.5% salt water
      70% is frozen in ice caps and glaciers.                 
    • Fresh water is limited!
    • Main water sources in HK
      • Potable water
      • Import raw water from Dongjiang (the East River)—70-80%
      • Local catchments (mainly from reservoirs)—20-30%
      • Non-potable water
      • Seawater (for toilet flushing—80% of the population)
    • Depend highly on ONE major source!
    • Present situation in the mainland
      • ‘Pollution leads to muddy tap water’ China Daily dated 15 th November 2011
      • ‘Business caught in grip of mainland water crisis’ SCMP 14 th November, 2011
      Rapid industrial development Water pollution
    • Pollution along Yangtze River http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=391&catid=10&subcatid=66#3303
    • Illegal dumping of toxic chromium waste in Yunnan… is likely to cause cancer in local residents. ?
    • Are we alone?
    • Threats worldwide
      • USA: ‘Texas water supply for the future is uncertain’ Houston Chronicle dated 14 th November 2011
      • ‘ Israel has suffered from a chronic water shortage for years.’ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/scarcity.html
      • Water supply in Australia is extremely variable. http://www.3green.com.au/webapps/i/65684/74079/82536
      • Singapore is lack of natural water sources.
    • Unstable fresh water supply! Polluted water sources!
    • The scarcity of water is a world problem! War to compete for clean water?
    • Any alternatives?
      • Education on water conservation.
      • Water reclamation.
      • Seawater desalination.
    • Singapore
    • Water supply in Singapore
      • Aims
      • Diversify water sources.
      • Ensure the future generations will continue to enjoy sustainable water supply.
      • http://www.pub.gov.sg/products/NEWater/Pages/default.aspx
    • Four national taps in Singapore
      • Water from local catchment areas .
      • Imported water .
      • Reclaimed water (known as NEWater) .
      • Desalinated water .
    • NEWater in Singapore
      • NEWater 30%.
      • NEWater is high-grade reclaimed water produced from treated used water.
    • Quality water
      • Singapore’s tap water is well within the World Health Organisation drinking water guidelines, and is suitable for drinking without any further filtration.
      • Singaporeans have enjoyed stable and good quality water for four decades.
    • Australia
    • Threats
      • Australia is a dry island continent - rainfall and consequently river flow and groundwater recharge are extremely variable.
      • Access to an adequate supply of good quality water is essential to the economic and social well being of all Australians.
      • http://www.3green.com.au/webapps/i/65684/74079/82536
    • Strategies
      • Water conservation
      • Water reclamation
      • Seawater desalination
      • Installation of water saving devices in households.
    • Advantages of the policies in Singapore and Australia
      • Ensure stable water supply.
      • Ensure the quality of drinking water.
      • Maintain the health of the general public.
      • Reduce medical expense.
    • Should Hong Kong continue to import water from Mainland China?
    • Water demand in Hong Kong
      • In 2007—951 million cubic meters
      • In 2030—1,315 million cubic meters
    • Hong Kong needs to diversify its water sources! What can we learn from other countries?
    •  
    • Total Water Management since 2005
      • Managing all water resources in all aspects.
      • Ensure sustainable use of water resources.
      • In 2004—Pilot Desalination Plant.
      • In 2005—Ngong Ping Pilot Scheme on Reclaimed Water & Shek Wu Hui Demonstration Scheme on Reclaimed Water.
    • Shek Wu Hui Sewage Treatment Works
      • Provides residents in in Sheung Shui and Fanling with reclaimed water for toilet flushing and other non-potable uses.
    • Water Demand Management
      • To enhance public education on water conservation.
      • To promote use of water saving devices.
      • To enhance water leakage control.
      • To extend use of seawater for toilet flushing.
    • Water Supply Management
      • To strengthen protection of water resources.
      • To actively consider water reclamation.
      • To develop the option of seawater desalination.
    • Water Saving Devices
    • Rain barrel http://www.watersavers.com/rain-barrels/prism-rain-barrel---54-108-gal_8_8.php
    • Rain barrels
      • To increase local catchments.
      • Install at the roofs of buildings.
      • Catch rain water during raining seasons.
      • Store water for toilet flushing.
      • Switch to seawater when rainwater is exhausted.
    • Waterless Urinal System http://waterlessurinalsystem.com/desert-water-efficient-urinal.html
    • Waterless Urinal System
      • In public toilets.
      • S afe on our precious waterways and for people.
      • Keep your washroom odour-free.
      • Quick and easy to clean.
      • Pleasant to use.
    • Water reclamation in Hong Kong Opportunities!
    • Now
      • Use the reclaimed water mainly for toilet flushing and landscape irrigation.
    • Tomorrow
      • The HK Housing Society is considering to rebuild 6 to 8 housing estates (over 40 years old). (Ming Pao 20 th November, 2011)
    •  
    • ‘ With one small change, you can make a big difference.’