Current Status and Future Trends of
Global Fisheries & Aquaculture

Felix Dent
Fishery Industry Officer
FIPM
What is...
FAO?
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
 Established to lead international efforts to def...
What is...
FAO?
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
 Established to lead international efforts to def...
What is...
FAO?
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
 Established to lead international efforts to def...
Status and Trends of Global Fisheries & Aquaculture

Production
o Aquaculture
o Capture fisheries

Trade and markets
o
o
o...
PRODUCTION
Aquaculture vs capture production
1950 - 2012
180
Capture

Aquaculture

160
140

Millions of tonnes

120
100
80
60
40
20
0...
Aquaculture vs capture production
1950 – 2022?
200
Capture

Aquaculture

180
160

Millions of tonnes

140
120
100
80
60
40...
World aquaculture production map by major species
2011
Capture fisheries today
Marine Fisheries
 Large proportion either fully utilized or over-exploited
 Limited potential fo...
FAO databases on 392 wild stocks

6%

underutilized

20%

moderately utilized

50%

fully utilized

15%

overfished

6%

d...
TRADE AND MARKETS
GLOBAL SEAFOOD SINCE 1976
Income growth + Urbanisation + Product development
20

35

18

16

30

25

12
20
10
15
8

6

10
...
World per capita supply of fish by species group
7

6

Kg per capita per year

5

Cephalopods
4

Crustaceans
Demersal Fish...
 In many cases, market
development is necessary
to compete in terms of
producer prices

 Use of pelagics for direct
huma...
World per capita fish consumption map by major species group
2009
Global market trends
Strong growth: now 4th biggest importer and biggest exporting country
Steadily increasing per kaput c...
Top Importers and Exporters in 2010, 2011 & 2012
60
* includes intra-EU trade

50

USD billion

40

30

20

10

0
EU-27*

...
WTO and fish trade
 159 MEMBER COUNTRIES
 RULES BASED SYSTEM
o
o
o
o

TARIFFS
SPS/TBT
SUBSIDIES
DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

 RO...
PRICES
Fish Price Index by Species Group
1990 - 2013
300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Other fish

White fish

Salmon

Shrimp

Pela...
FAO Food Price Index with Pelagics and (all) Fish added
1990 - 2013
450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Food (e...
 World fish prices set to rise
strongly
• Strong demand
• Rising production costs
• Slower production growth
 Continuing...
NUTRITION, TRACEABILITY, ECOLABELS & FAO
Fish & Nutrition
Fish provides many valuable nutrients
 protein
 long-chain omega-3 fatty acids
 fat-soluble vitamins

...
Traceability in the Supply Chain

Globalization of supply chains (separation of producer and consumer)
+
Concerns about fo...
Eco-labeling and Certification

Costs & Benefits
o Fishers bear most of the cost  retailers reap most of the rewards
o A...
Many new labels: clarification needed
o What is sustainable?
o Transparent connection to producer
FAO response
 Guidelines
o for Eco-Labeling of Fish and Fishery Products from Marine
Capture Fisheries (2005)
o for the E...
Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
 Sets out principles and international standards for responsible practices
with...
CONCLUSIONS
 SUPPLY INCREASES THANKS TO AQUACULTURE
o BUT FISHERIES MANAGEMENT STILL AN ISSUE
 WORLD TRADE IS INCREASING...
THANK YOU
Hetkeseis ja tulevikutrendid rahvusvahelises kalanduses ja vesiviljeluses. Felix Dent, FAO
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Hetkeseis ja tulevikutrendid rahvusvahelises kalanduses ja vesiviljeluses. Felix Dent, FAO

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Hetkeseis ja tulevikutrendid rahvusvahelises kalanduses ja vesiviljeluses. Ettekanne 27. novembril Tallinnas toimunud konverentsilt "Uue kalanduspoliitika lävel".
Felix Dent, FAO kalanduse ja vesiviljeluse osakonna spetsialist

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Hetkeseis ja tulevikutrendid rahvusvahelises kalanduses ja vesiviljeluses. Felix Dent, FAO

  1. 1. Current Status and Future Trends of Global Fisheries & Aquaculture Felix Dent Fishery Industry Officer FIPM
  2. 2. What is... FAO? Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations  Established to lead international efforts to defeat world hunger  Acts as a neutral forum to direct global policy  Gathers and disseminates information about food production and markets  Provides technical assistance in developing countries
  3. 3. What is... FAO? Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations  Established to lead international efforts to defeat world hunger  Acts as a neutral forum to direct global policy  Gathers and disseminates information about food production and markets  Provides technical assistance in developing countries FIPM? Fish Products, Trade and Marketing service – a branch of the FAO Fisheries Department  Deals with fish after they have been caught  Runs technical assistance projects in developing countries, helps formulate best practice guidelines  Gathers and disseminates market information through reports, website (www.globefish.org), regular publications etc
  4. 4. What is... FAO? Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations  Established to lead international efforts to defeat world hunger  Acts as a neutral forum to direct global policy  Gathers and disseminates information about food production and markets  Provides technical assistance in developing countries FIPM? Fish Products, Trade and Marketing service – a branch of the FAO Fisheries Department  Deals with fish after they have been caught  Runs technical assistance projects in developing countries, helps formulate best practice guidelines  Gathers and disseminates market information through reports, website (www.globefish.org), regular publications etc
  5. 5. Status and Trends of Global Fisheries & Aquaculture Production o Aquaculture o Capture fisheries Trade and markets o o o o Prices & projections Trade & market trends Fish & nutrition Traceability, eco-labels & sustainability
  6. 6. PRODUCTION
  7. 7. Aquaculture vs capture production 1950 - 2012 180 Capture Aquaculture 160 140 Millions of tonnes 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 Source: FishstatJ & Globefish Highlights (2013) 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Note: 2011 & 2012 estimated figures
  8. 8. Aquaculture vs capture production 1950 – 2022? 200 Capture Aquaculture 180 160 Millions of tonnes 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 Source: FishstatJ , Globefish Highlights (2013) & OECD-FAO Agricultural outlook 2013-2022 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Note: 2011 & 2012 estimated figures, 2013-2022 projected
  9. 9. World aquaculture production map by major species 2011
  10. 10. Capture fisheries today Marine Fisheries  Large proportion either fully utilized or over-exploited  Limited potential for increased production In-Land Fisheries  Some stocks collapsed or collapsing  But many remain underutilized  Lack of data
  11. 11. FAO databases on 392 wild stocks 6% underutilized 20% moderately utilized 50% fully utilized 15% overfished 6% depleted 2% recovering 11
  12. 12. TRADE AND MARKETS
  13. 13. GLOBAL SEAFOOD SINCE 1976 Income growth + Urbanisation + Product development 20 35 18 16 30 25 12 20 10 15 8 6 10 4 5 2 0 0 Millions of tonnes KG per capita per year 14 Fish supply per capita Seafood exports
  14. 14. World per capita supply of fish by species group 7 6 Kg per capita per year 5 Cephalopods 4 Crustaceans Demersal Fish Freshwater Fish 3 Marine Fish, Other Molluscs, Other Pelagic Fish 2 1 0
  15. 15.  In many cases, market development is necessary to compete in terms of producer prices  Use of pelagics for direct human consumption increasing  BUT major stocks such as anchoveta still utilised for fishmeal and fish oil  Shift towards direct consumption must be market-driven  Small pelagics have great potential as a highly nutritious, cheap food source particularly for nutrient deficient populations
  16. 16. World per capita fish consumption map by major species group 2009
  17. 17. Global market trends Strong growth: now 4th biggest importer and biggest exporting country Steadily increasing per kaput consumption: 31 kg/kaput long-term growth: # 1 market (EU 28) rising population and stable consumption at 23 kg/kaput increasing import dependence long-term growth, overtaking Japan as # 1 importing country rising population and stable consumption 24 kg/kaput long-term decline in fish consumption and imports of meat>fish. high consumption but falling: 57 kg/kaput
  18. 18. Top Importers and Exporters in 2010, 2011 & 2012 60 * includes intra-EU trade 50 USD billion 40 30 20 10 0 EU-27* Japan USA China Korea Rep EU-27* China Norway Thailand Viet Nam Source: Globefish Highlights 2013
  19. 19. WTO and fish trade  159 MEMBER COUNTRIES  RULES BASED SYSTEM o o o o TARIFFS SPS/TBT SUBSIDIES DISPUTE SETTLEMENT  ROLE OF BILATERAL/PLURILATERAL AGREEMENTS
  20. 20. PRICES
  21. 21. Fish Price Index by Species Group 1990 - 2013 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Other fish White fish Salmon Shrimp Pelagic Tuna
  22. 22. FAO Food Price Index with Pelagics and (all) Fish added 1990 - 2013 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Food (excl. fish) Meat (excl. fish) Dairy Cereals Oils Sugar Fish
  23. 23.  World fish prices set to rise strongly • Strong demand • Rising production costs • Slower production growth  Continuing price volatility  Fishmeal and fish oil also prices set to rise • Rapidly growing aquaculture sector • Limited supply  Long term price differential will drive substitution away from traditional ingredients
  24. 24. NUTRITION, TRACEABILITY, ECOLABELS & FAO
  25. 25. Fish & Nutrition Fish provides many valuable nutrients  protein  long-chain omega-3 fatty acids  fat-soluble vitamins  minerals like iron, calcium, iodine, zinc & selenium With numerous health benefits  (known) reduced risk of cardiac death, aids neurodevelopment in unborn infants  (probable) reduced risk of stroke, (possible) reduced risk of depression Which are important in developing countries  fish provides nutrients where they are most needed  cheap small pelagics growing component of developing country diets
  26. 26. Traceability in the Supply Chain Globalization of supply chains (separation of producer and consumer) + Concerns about food safety and quality assurance + Consumer awareness of fisheries sustainability issues = Growing need for traceability mechanisms and guidelines Are costs and benefits equally distributed along the supply chain? Balance between need for traceability and minimizing unnecessary barriers to trade?
  27. 27. Eco-labeling and Certification Costs & Benefits o Fishers bear most of the cost  retailers reap most of the rewards o Access to new markets o Stable supply and integrated value chains
  28. 28. Many new labels: clarification needed o What is sustainable? o Transparent connection to producer
  29. 29. FAO response  Guidelines o for Eco-Labeling of Fish and Fishery Products from Marine Capture Fisheries (2005) o for the Eco-Labeling of Fish and Fishery Products from Inland Capture Fisheries (2010) o for Aquaculture Certification (2011)
  30. 30. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries  Sets out principles and international standards for responsible practices with respect to the goals of conservation, management and development  FAO actively promoting its implementation and monitoring progress  Internationally agreed but non-binding
  31. 31. CONCLUSIONS  SUPPLY INCREASES THANKS TO AQUACULTURE o BUT FISHERIES MANAGEMENT STILL AN ISSUE  WORLD TRADE IS INCREASING o BUT SHARE OF 3 BIG MARKETS DECLINING o ROLE OF CHINA  FISH AND HUMAN NUTRITION  PRICES TO RISE STRONGLY  IMPORTANCE OF TRACEABILITY AND LABELING
  32. 32. THANK YOU

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