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The atmosphere

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  • Name The Different Layers as they come in, also explain that the Exosphere is not really a layer but is the beginning of outer space.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Atmosphere
    • 2. The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention ( greenhouse effect ), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night.
    • 3. Air is the name given to atmosphere used in breathing and photosynthesis. Composition of air
    • 4. ● ______ ● ______ ● ______ ● ______ The Atmosphere The temperature in the atmosphere varies depending on the different layer we are in.
    • 5. Exosphere Thermosphere Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere
    • 6.
      • Here, living things are also free from the radiation showers which flow down through most of the earth’s atmosphere.
      • Compared to the rest of the atmosphere, the troposphere is a tiny layer , extending at most 16km up from the earth’s surface. Within this small layer almost all of our weather is created.
      The Troposphere (I)
      • It is the lowest level of earth’s atmosphere where the right mixture of oxygen and nitrogen works to support life.
    • 7.
      • Generally, as altitude increases, temperature decreases steadily. But the earth's topography—mountain ranges and plateaus—can cause some lower regions in the troposphere to experience temperature inversions.
      The Troposphere (II)
      • Towards the top of the troposphere temperatures fall to an average low of -57 ºC and wind speeds increase significantly, making the top of the troposphere an extremely cold and windy place.
    • 8.
      • The gradual change from the troposphere to the stratosphere begins at approximately 11km high. The temperature in the lower stratosphere is extremely stable and cold at -57 ºC.
      • There are strong winds. High cirrus clouds sometimes form in the lower stratosphere, but for the most part there are no significant weather patterns in the stratosphere.
      The Stratosphere (I)
    • 9. The Stratosphere (II)
      • From the middle of the stratosphere and up, the temperature pattern undergoes a sudden change, sharply increasing with height. Much of this temperature change is due to increasing levels of ozone concentration which absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
      • The temperature can reach 18 ºC in the upper stratosphere near an altitude of 40km high.
    • 10.
      • 40km above the earth’s surface marks the transition to the mesosphere. In this layer, temperature once again begins to fall as altitude increases, to temperatures as low as -143 ºC near its top, 81km above the earth.
      The Mesosphere
      • Such extreme cold allows the formation of so-called noctilucent clouds, made of ice crystals clinging to dust particles.
    • 11.
      • It directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere. Within this layer, ultraviolet radiation causes ionization.
      • Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation by the small amount of residual oxygen still present. Temperatures can rise to 2,000°C.
      The Thermosphere
      • Radiation causes the scattered air particles in this layer to become charged electrically enabling radio waves to bounce off and be
      • received beyond the horizon.
    • 12.
      • The exosphere is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere.
      • In the exosphere, an upward travelling molecule moving fast enough to attain escape velocity can escape to space; if it is moving below escape velocity it will be prevented from escaping by gravity.
      The Exosphere
    • 13. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface, energy is transferred to the surface and the lower atmosphere. As a result, the temperature there is higher than it would be if direct heating by solar radiation were the only warming mechanism. The greenhouse effect is a process by which radiation from the surface of the Earth is absorbed by atmospheric gases, and is re-radiated in all directions.
    • 14. Exosphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere Earth

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