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Teachers Make A DifferenceWhat is the research evidence? John Hattie University of Auckland Australian Council for Educational Research Presented by: Prime Paul C. Cepeda Silliman University
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is theResearch Evidence?Aims/Purpose of the Paper:The article aims to establish the profile ofan expert and excellent teacher distinct fromthat of the experienced or novice onethrough a critical review of varied literatureon the variance in student’sachievement, the major dimensions of anexcellent teacher and through the studyconducted in classrooms of expert teachers.
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is the Research Evidence? Methodology:Review of studies of the effects of influences(variance) on student’s achievementReview of literature on the major dimensions ofexcellent teachers and the resulting 16 prototypeattributes of teacher expertiseActual study involving 65 Middle ChildhoodGeneralist (or Early Adolescence) in EnglishLanguage Arts teachers categorized asexperienced and expert teachers who passed andfailed in the U.S. NBPTS
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is the Research Evidence? Review of Related Literature:Hierarchical Linear Modelling decomposes the varianceof many influences that affect student’s achievementinto: what the student brings to the task, thecurricula, the policy, the principal, the school climate, theteacher, the various teaching strategies, and the home.In a review by Hattie & Jaeger on the distinctionsbetween expert and experienced teachers and withinterest on the expertise that underpinned the expertteachers, they identified five major dimensions ofexcellent teachers.
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is theResearch Evidence?Review of Related Literature:Schulman (1987)- Experts are more opportunisticand flexible in their teaching. They take advantageof new information, quickly bringing newinterpretations and representations of the problemto lightLarkin (1983); Voss & Post, (1988) - Experts aremore likely to monitor their ongoing solutionattempts, checking for accuracy, and updating orelaborating problem representations as newconstraints emerge.
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is the Research Evidence? Review of Related Literature: Cellier et al., (1997) - Expert teachers anticipateand prevent disturbances from occurring whereasnon-experts tend to correct already existingdisturbances. This is because expert teachers have awider scope of anticipation and more selectiveinformation gatheringSwanson et al., (1996). - Expert teachers weremore meticulous in their efforts to adequately checkand test out their hypotheses or strategies
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is theResearch Evidence? Key Results/Findings:The greatest source of variance that can makethe difference in student achievement is theTEACHER.The teacher puts into place the end effects of somany policies, interprets these policies, and who iswith the students during their school hours. While content knowledge must be present, it ismore of the pedagogical content knowledge that is important - that is, the way knowledge is used in teaching situations.
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is the Research Evidence? Key Results/Findings: There are five major dimensions of excellentteachers. Expert teachers 1) can identify essential representations of their subject, 2) can guide learning through classroom interactions, 3) can monitor learning and provide feedback, 4) can attend to affective attributes, and 5) can influence student outcomes
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is theResearch Evidence?Key Results/Findings: Expert teachers can be distinguished bythe 5 dimensions mentioned earlier, thatleads to 16 attributes of an expert teacher.These attributes is not a checklist but aprofile and considered facets of the expertteacher -there is no one necessary facet northe equal presence of all but theoverlapping of many facets into the wholeexpert teacher.
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is the Research Evidence? Key Results/Findings:On the Study:The differences in the means indicate that there arereasonably major differences for most attributes.74% of the work samples of students in the classes of expertteachers were judged to reflect a level of undertaking that isRelational or Extended Abstract compared with 29% of thework samples of non-certified teachers These students exhibit an understanding that is moreintegrated, more coherent, and at a higher level of abstractionthan the understanding achieved by other students.Challenge, Deep Representation, Monitoring and Feedbackare 3 of the 16 attributes that most effectively separated expertfrom experienced teachers.
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is theResearch Evidence? My Insights:The article was actually an eye-opener forme, since I have to be frank about it, I have a verybasic theoretical knowledge on teachingpedagogy since I am not a BS Education graduateto begin with. It is very easy to promise tooneself, the school, and the students to be aneffective and efficient teacher, but the ideas tobegin such undertaking will be very vague if thereare no ideals to live with and strive to achieve.
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is theResearch Evidence? My Insights: The paper also made a relevant connection witha previous topic that we had in EDS 111 which isMental Representation which is the inherentcapacity of an expert teacher to recognize anddiscern the cognitive processes involved inlearning to improve current best practices, and thatwith the data and observations that the paper hadobserved, expert teachers are in the best positionto take advantage of this.
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is theResearch Evidence?My Insights:The paper made me realize that tobe an expert teacher, one has tohave extensive experience inteaching pedagogy and theoreticalbases which underpins the scientificdelivery of instruction.
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is theResearch Evidence?My Insights:I realized that there is no simple formula toachieve excellent teaching and learningoutcomesIt is good enough that we are constantly insearch for ways and means to attain qualityeducation through systematic reviews andscientific research involving actors andstakeholders
TEACHERS MAKE A DIFFERENCE What is the research Evidence? My Insights: Indeed so much is still desired in coming up withempirical and tested indicators of excellentteachers, and excellent teaching, excellentstudents, excellent educationalinstitution, excellent curriculum, etc.It is important to arrive at critical indicators of theexcellent standard as bases for teacherdevelopment and training/student learningprograms But what is important is that the greatest factorthat can make the difference is in our hands asTEACHER