Energy Emission

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  • 1. ENERGY & EMISSIONS IN METAL INDUSTRY BRAJENDRA MISHRA, COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
  • 2. CHANGE IN STEEL PRODUCTION (Mt) 2006/2007 Over the last fours years, India has increased production from 32.6 Mt to 53.1 Mt – a sizeable increase, and displaced South Korea and Germany to move from 9 th to 5 th position.     1.2    31.6    32.0 10 Italy 1245 1343.1 Total     9.3    30.9    33.8 9 Brazil     4.7    40.9    42.8 8 Ukraine     2.8    47.2    48.5 7 Germany     6.0    48.5    51.4 6 South Korea     7.3    49.5    53.1 5 India     2.0    70.8    72.2 4 Russia    -1.4    98.6    97.2 3 United States     3.4   116.2   120.2 2 Japan    15.7   422.7   489.0 1 China Change, % 2006 2007 Rank Country
  • 3. STEEL BEATS OTHER MATERIALS Production and Value 1970 / 2006 (Mt / Bil Eu) Value estimation 2006 Steel 670 B Є /a Aluminium 80 Billion Є /a Magnesium 18 Billion Є /a Plastics 262 Billion Є /a *2005
  • 4. MARCH IN GLOBAL STEEL CONSUMPTION There was increase in steel consumption during 1983-2003, after a decade of no growth. 2003-2007 has witnessed hitherto unmatched increase. +230 Mt in 10 years 1993-2003 +379 Mt in last 4 years 2003-2007 +115 Mt in 10 years 1983-1993 ~ 0 in 10 years 1973-1983 +400 Mt in 25 years 1948-1973 +100 Mt in 75 years 1873-1948 Change Year
  • 5. CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION: CHINA / INDIA
  • 6. TYPICAL COST BREAK UP OF HOT METAL Coke is the major cost component; yet is in short supply/expensive.
  • 7. Steel – excellent material in terms of sustainability – can be infinitely recycled without loss of quality. Steel from ore produces 1.54 t CO 2 per tonne of crude steel globally; 2.4-2.6 t CO 2 in India. EAF steelmaking using recycled scrap generates only 0.68 t CO 2 . CO 2 EMISSION IN STEEL PROCESSING (t per tcs) Reduction, 0.86 t Recycling 0.68 t Primary process, 1.54 t
  • 8. After steel, aluminium is the most widely used metal. In 2006, out of 34 Mt aluminium produced worldwide, 23% was secondary aluminium. Aluminium scrap processing leads to some loss of quality, but energy is only 5% of primary production. Hence, 9.87 t of CO 2 saved for every tonne aluminium produced by secondary processing. Primary process, 10.60 t CO 2 CO 2 EMISSION IN ALUMINIUM PROCESSING (t/t)
  • 9. Globally 35% of 17 Mt copper produced each year is from recycling of copper scrap. The secondary process saves 3.5 tonnes CO 2 per tonne of copper produced – 36% improvement compared to the primary route, There is 5% material loss and some difference in quality between primary and secondary copper. Primary process, 5.5 t CO 2 Reduction, 3.52 t Secondary Process, 1.98 t CO 2 EMISSION IN COPPER PROCESSING (t/t)
  • 10. CO 2 EMISSIONS (t/t product) FOR STEEL, ALUMINIUM, COPPER and PAPER Steel is the least CO 2 generating metal. Paper produces less CO 2 , but has limited application. Recycling process Reduction
  • 11. CHALLENGES FOR INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY