Chapter4 emergency preparedness

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  • 1. 1
    1
    CHAPTER 4
    EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE
  • 2. 2
    WHAT IS AN EMERGENCY
    • Accident – unexpected event which cause damage@ harm. Happens by chance.
    • 3. Emergency – an unforeseen combination of circumstances @ the resulting state that calls for immediate action.
    • 4. Disaster – a sudden calamitous event bringing great damage , loss @ destruction
  • 3
    WHY PREPARE FOR AN EMERGENCY
    • There are unaccounted , unplanned & unexpected event
    • 5. Accidents happen at any time and emergency situation is chaotic.
    • 6. Emergency often escalates to crisis.
    • 7. Regulatory and industry requirement – eg CIMAH Regulations, 1996.
    • 8. Responsible care OHSAS 18000, ISSO 14000 , etc
    • 9. Communitiess are affected by emergencies.
  • 4
    LEVEL OF EMERGENCY
    • Depends on severity of the incident and capability of the organisation.
    Level 1
    If within the capabilities of the organisation.
    Level 2
    If external assistance is required: Mutual aid, district or other agencies. MKN Arahan 20 may apply.
    Level 3
    State of National Disaster. MKN 20 take over.
  • 10. 5
    GOALS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE
    • Control, reduce or sstop the cause.
    • 11. Control situation and limit secondary damage.
    • 12. Continue operation and recover quickly.
  • 6
    OBJECTIVES OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE
    • Save life
    Prioritise rescue and first aid.
    Rescuers must no be put to risk.
    • Save property, asset and reputation
    • 13. Save community and the environment
  • 7
    BASIC ELEMENTS OF EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE MANAGEMENT
    Organise emergency management team.
    Identify the accident scenarios and emergency consequences.
    Identify resources, equipment and facilities.
    Develop plans and procedures
    Train , drill and exercise.
    Review system
  • 14. 8
    EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONS
    Emergency Management
    commitment
    Emergency Management Committe
    To plan for:
    Incident command organisation
    Emergency Coordinator
    To coordinate planning
  • 24. 9
    Emergency Management Coordinator And Task
    • Administer and keep current the emergency management programme
    • 25. Work with Emergency Management Committe
  • 10
    Emergency Management Committe
    • Ensure preparation, implementation and evaluation of EPR.
    • 26. Work with coordinator
    Membership – technical & Non technical
  • 27. 11
    Incident command organisation
    ( Based on Incident Command System )
    INCIDENT COMMANDER
    Planning
    Operation
    • Damage control (e.g fire fighting)
    • 31. Rescue
    • 32. Evacuation
    • 33. Traffic control
    Logistic
    Administrator
  • 12
    TASK OF THE INCIDENT ORGANISATION
    • Identify level of emergency response
    • 41. Coordinates response action, evacuation, continuity and recovery activities.
    • 42. Ensure outside assistance are notified or called upon.
    • 43. work with external agencies.
    • 44. Complies with appliance statutes or regulations.
  • 13
    INCIDENT COMMAND OPERATIONS TEAMS
    • Depends on the organisation, activities and products. For example:
    Most organisations will need a team of :
    - Fire fighter
    - Evacuation rescuers
    - First aiders
    Hazardous chemical plant
    - Chemical or oil spill team
    Process plant
    - Shut down team
    - Rescue team
  • 45. 14
    EMERGENCY PLANNING
    • Thread and Hazard identification
    Use imagination, think of the unexpected
    • Assessssment of emergency scenario
    Also impacts beyond control such as:
    • Regional communication loss and national power outage.
    • 46. Transportation disruption ( floods, broken bridges )
    • 47. Plan for Emergency Mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
  • 15
    TYPES OF POTENTIAL HAZARD
    • Natural events
    Storms, earthquakes, flood, etc
    • Technology events
    • 48. Mechanical problems ( e.g ruptured pipes, metal fatigue ) Chemical spills, aircraft crash, fire ,explosion
    • 49. Human events
    • 50. Wrong valve open, miscommunication about what to do
    • 51. Sabotage, terrorisme
  • 16
    HAZARD CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS – For Emegency And Recovery Plans
    • what hazard are most likely to occur
    • 52. What functions or ervices are affected
    • 53. in what way the functions could not be perform following a disaster.
    • 54. What are the critical functions.
    • 55. What actions will protect them.
    • 56. What functions has to be restored quickly.
  • 17
    POTENTIAL IMPACT OF HAZARD
    • Health , safety and environment
    • 57. Person in affected area.
    • 58. Personnel responding to the incident
    • 59. Pollution to the environment
    • 60. Legal
    • 61. Regulatory and contractual obligations
    • 62. Business
    • 63. Continuity of operations and delivery of services.
    • 64. Property, facilities, and infrastructure loss
    • 65. Reputaion of the organisation.
    • 66. Economic and financial condition.
  • 18
    EMERGENCY PLAN STRATEGY
    • Emergency plan should be capable of dealing with the worst case credible scenario.
    • 67. However, detailed planning should concentrate on the more likely events.
    • 68. Plans should also be sufficiently flexible to ensure that an emergency response can be verified according to the severity of the incident.
  • 19
    RECOVERING STRATEGY
    • Objectives : Restor functions as early as possible.
    • 69. Redundancy or alternatives arranged for identified critical functions.
    • 70. Alternative site, supplier arrangement
    • 71. Roles and responsibilities for restoration identified
    - e.g recovery manager and team, communications, utilities, purchasing, Hr and site security.
  • 72. 20
    MITIGATION MEASURE
    • Interim andlong term- to eliminate or reduce impact of hazard that cannot be eliminated.
    • 73. Access, escape routes and shelters
    • 74. Early warning – Establishment of hazard warning and communication procedures.
    • 75. Materials – removal , reduction, modification, segregation, or elimination.
    • 76. Heat, fluids. Etc protective system, redundancy, control, of rate of release.
    • 77. Structures- building construction standards
  • 21
    RESOURCE PLANNING
    • Based on identified threats and hazards.
    • 78. Fire, flood, explosion, spills, collapse
    • 79. Existing external and internal resources.
    • 80. Identify resource shortfalls and alternate sources.
    • 81. Consideration for mutual aid agreements.
    • 82. Arrangements with vendors and suppliers.
  • 22
    IDENTIFY FOR EACH THREAT OR HAZARD.
    • Resource and Logistic
    - Personal training, expert knowledge, materials.
    • Available in timely manner and have the capability to do its intended function.
    • 83. Quantity, response time, operability.
    • 84. Equipment and facilities
    -Fire fighting , heavy equipment, medical supplies
    • Miscellaneous
    - Food, clothing and shelter for evacuees, religious personel, volunteer and social / political groups.
  • 85. 23
    EMERGENCY TO BE MADE AVAILABLE
    • command post
    • 86. Identified, equipped, tested and maintained
    • 87. Operations manual
    • 88. Personnel protective equipment list
    • 89. Where needed toxic, explosive gas detectors, wind indicators.
    • 90. Resources from external sources.
  • 24
    REGULAR TESTOF EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES
    • Check and document alarm system frequently.
    • 91. Frequent tests of fire fighting equipment
  • 25
    IMMEDIATE STRATEGIC PLANS
    • Identification of vital personnel ( core team ) systems, operations and equipments.
    • 92. Priorities for restoration and mitigation.
    • 93. Acceptable downtime before restoration to a minimum level.
    • 94. Minimum resources needed to accomplish the restoration.
  • 26
    PLANS
    • Written plans
    • 95. Strategic
    • 96. Operationss
    • 97. Mitigation
    • 98. Recovery plans
    • 99. Roles and responsibilities
    • 100. Incident commander, recovery manager, communication and public relations.
    • 101. Lines of authority
  • 27
    EMERGENCY OPERATING MANUALS
    • For refer during an emergency.
    • 102. Who does what, information and data.
    • 103. Balance between overview and detailed response.
    • 104. Need to know, nice to know.
    • 105. Sound understanding enables flexibility.
    • 106. simple language
  • 28
    INCIDENT PROCEDURES
    • Control of access to the area.
    • 107. Identification of personnel at the incident
    • 108. Accounting for personnel in incident activities.
    • 109. Accounting for person affected, displaced, or injured by the emergency.
    • 110. Mobilisation and demobilisation of resources.
  • 29
    TRAINING
    • Familiarisation
    • 111. Manual familiarisation, specific courses ( chemical fire, rescue, decontamination, media etc )
    • 112. Personnel readliness
    • 113. Know the fundamental role
    • 114. Know your way around the manual.
    • 115. Have your personal aid ready
    • 116. Know the early action well.
    • 117. Ensure alternate is ready.
  • 30
    EXERCISE AND DRILLS
    • Types and subjects
    • 118. Types : Simulated, “ Real “
    • 119. Subjects : Operational, security, Commercial.
    • 120. Preparation for exercise
    • 121. Scenarios, timing of events, roles ( including media ) and resources.
    • 122. Secret but forewarn other parties as necessary.
  • 31
    EVALUATION
    • Plan should be reviewed anually and updated as necessary.
    • 123. Be re- evaluated when :
    • 124. There are changes ( Regulatory, new hazard, existing hazard changes )
    • 125. resources or organizational structure change.
    • 126. After test, drills or exercise
    • 127. After disaster responses
    • 128. Infrastructure changes.