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1<br />1<br />CHAPTER 4<br />EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE<br />
2<br />WHAT IS AN EMERGENCY<br /><ul><li> Accident – unexpected event which cause damage@ harm. Happens by chance.
 Emergency – an unforeseen combination of circumstances @ the resulting state that calls for immediate action.
 Disaster – a sudden calamitous event bringing great damage , loss @ destruction </li></li></ul><li>3<br />WHY PREPARE FOR...
 Accidents happen at any time and emergency situation is chaotic.
 Emergency often escalates to crisis.
 Regulatory and industry requirement – eg CIMAH Regulations, 1996.
 Responsible care OHSAS 18000, ISSO 14000 , etc
Communitiess are affected by emergencies.</li></li></ul><li>4<br />LEVEL OF EMERGENCY<br /><ul><li> Depends on severity of...
5<br />GOALS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE<br /><ul><li> Control, reduce or sstop the cause.
 Control situation and limit secondary damage.
 Continue operation and recover quickly.</li></li></ul><li>6<br />OBJECTIVES OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE<br /><ul><li> Save life...
 Save community and the environment</li></li></ul><li>7<br />BASIC ELEMENTS OF EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE MANAGEM...
8<br />EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONS<br />Emergency Management<br />commitment<br />Emergency Management Committe<br ...
 Preparedness
 Response
Recovery</li></ul>Incident command organisation<br /><ul><li>Take control during incident
Function :
Command
Operation
Planning
Logistic
Admin/ finance</li></ul>Emergency Coordinator<br />To coordinate planning<br />
9<br />Emergency Management Coordinator And Task<br /><ul><li> Administer and keep current the emergency management programme
 Work with Emergency Management Committe</li></li></ul><li>10<br />Emergency Management Committe<br /><ul><li> Ensure prep...
 Work with coordinator</li></ul>Membership – technical & Non technical<br />
11<br />Incident command organisation<br /> ( Based on Incident Command System )<br />INCIDENT COMMANDER <br />Planning<br...
 Records
Documents
 Strategy</li></ul>Operation<br /><ul><li>Damage control (e.g fire fighting)
 Rescue
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Chapter4 emergency preparedness

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Transcript of "Chapter4 emergency preparedness"

  1. 1. 1<br />1<br />CHAPTER 4<br />EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />WHAT IS AN EMERGENCY<br /><ul><li> Accident – unexpected event which cause damage@ harm. Happens by chance.
  3. 3. Emergency – an unforeseen combination of circumstances @ the resulting state that calls for immediate action.
  4. 4. Disaster – a sudden calamitous event bringing great damage , loss @ destruction </li></li></ul><li>3<br />WHY PREPARE FOR AN EMERGENCY<br /><ul><li> There are unaccounted , unplanned & unexpected event
  5. 5. Accidents happen at any time and emergency situation is chaotic.
  6. 6. Emergency often escalates to crisis.
  7. 7. Regulatory and industry requirement – eg CIMAH Regulations, 1996.
  8. 8. Responsible care OHSAS 18000, ISSO 14000 , etc
  9. 9. Communitiess are affected by emergencies.</li></li></ul><li>4<br />LEVEL OF EMERGENCY<br /><ul><li> Depends on severity of the incident and capability of the organisation.</li></ul>Level 1<br />If within the capabilities of the organisation.<br />Level 2<br />If external assistance is required: Mutual aid, district or other agencies. MKN Arahan 20 may apply.<br />Level 3<br />State of National Disaster. MKN 20 take over.<br />
  10. 10. 5<br />GOALS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE<br /><ul><li> Control, reduce or sstop the cause.
  11. 11. Control situation and limit secondary damage.
  12. 12. Continue operation and recover quickly.</li></li></ul><li>6<br />OBJECTIVES OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE<br /><ul><li> Save life</li></ul>Prioritise rescue and first aid.<br />Rescuers must no be put to risk.<br /><ul><li> Save property, asset and reputation
  13. 13. Save community and the environment</li></li></ul><li>7<br />BASIC ELEMENTS OF EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE MANAGEMENT<br />Organise emergency management team.<br />Identify the accident scenarios and emergency consequences.<br />Identify resources, equipment and facilities.<br />Develop plans and procedures<br />Train , drill and exercise.<br />Review system<br />
  14. 14. 8<br />EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONS<br />Emergency Management<br />commitment<br />Emergency Management Committe<br />To plan for:<br /><ul><li>Mitigation
  15. 15. Preparedness
  16. 16. Response
  17. 17. Recovery</li></ul>Incident command organisation<br /><ul><li>Take control during incident
  18. 18. Function :
  19. 19. Command
  20. 20. Operation
  21. 21. Planning
  22. 22. Logistic
  23. 23. Admin/ finance</li></ul>Emergency Coordinator<br />To coordinate planning<br />
  24. 24. 9<br />Emergency Management Coordinator And Task<br /><ul><li> Administer and keep current the emergency management programme
  25. 25. Work with Emergency Management Committe</li></li></ul><li>10<br />Emergency Management Committe<br /><ul><li> Ensure preparation, implementation and evaluation of EPR.
  26. 26. Work with coordinator</li></ul>Membership – technical & Non technical<br />
  27. 27. 11<br />Incident command organisation<br /> ( Based on Incident Command System )<br />INCIDENT COMMANDER <br />Planning<br /><ul><li> Situation analysis
  28. 28. Records
  29. 29. Documents
  30. 30. Strategy</li></ul>Operation<br /><ul><li>Damage control (e.g fire fighting)
  31. 31. Rescue
  32. 32. Evacuation
  33. 33. Traffic control </li></ul>Logistic<br /><ul><li> Communication
  34. 34. HR
  35. 35. ECC
  36. 36. First aid
  37. 37. Transport
  38. 38. IT</li></ul>Administrator<br /><ul><li> Legal
  39. 39. Procurement
  40. 40. Recovery</li></li></ul><li>12<br />TASK OF THE INCIDENT ORGANISATION<br /><ul><li> Identify level of emergency response
  41. 41. Coordinates response action, evacuation, continuity and recovery activities.
  42. 42. Ensure outside assistance are notified or called upon.
  43. 43. work with external agencies.
  44. 44. Complies with appliance statutes or regulations.</li></li></ul><li>13<br />INCIDENT COMMAND OPERATIONS TEAMS<br /><ul><li> Depends on the organisation, activities and products. For example:</li></ul> Most organisations will need a team of :<br /> - Fire fighter<br /> - Evacuation rescuers<br /> - First aiders<br /> Hazardous chemical plant<br /> - Chemical or oil spill team<br /> Process plant<br /> - Shut down team<br /> - Rescue team<br />
  45. 45. 14<br />EMERGENCY PLANNING<br /><ul><li> Thread and Hazard identification</li></ul> Use imagination, think of the unexpected<br /><ul><li>Assessssment of emergency scenario</li></ul> Also impacts beyond control such as:<br /><ul><li>Regional communication loss and national power outage.
  46. 46. Transportation disruption ( floods, broken bridges )
  47. 47. Plan for Emergency Mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.</li></li></ul><li>15<br />TYPES OF POTENTIAL HAZARD<br /><ul><li> Natural events</li></ul> Storms, earthquakes, flood, etc<br /><ul><li> Technology events
  48. 48. Mechanical problems ( e.g ruptured pipes, metal fatigue ) Chemical spills, aircraft crash, fire ,explosion
  49. 49. Human events
  50. 50. Wrong valve open, miscommunication about what to do
  51. 51. Sabotage, terrorisme</li></li></ul><li>16<br />HAZARD CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS – For Emegency And Recovery Plans<br /><ul><li> what hazard are most likely to occur
  52. 52. What functions or ervices are affected
  53. 53. in what way the functions could not be perform following a disaster.
  54. 54. What are the critical functions.
  55. 55. What actions will protect them.
  56. 56. What functions has to be restored quickly.</li></li></ul><li>17<br />POTENTIAL IMPACT OF HAZARD<br /><ul><li> Health , safety and environment
  57. 57. Person in affected area.
  58. 58. Personnel responding to the incident
  59. 59. Pollution to the environment
  60. 60. Legal
  61. 61. Regulatory and contractual obligations
  62. 62. Business
  63. 63. Continuity of operations and delivery of services.
  64. 64. Property, facilities, and infrastructure loss
  65. 65. Reputaion of the organisation.
  66. 66. Economic and financial condition.</li></li></ul><li>18<br />EMERGENCY PLAN STRATEGY<br /><ul><li> Emergency plan should be capable of dealing with the worst case credible scenario.
  67. 67. However, detailed planning should concentrate on the more likely events.
  68. 68. Plans should also be sufficiently flexible to ensure that an emergency response can be verified according to the severity of the incident.</li></li></ul><li>19<br />RECOVERING STRATEGY<br /><ul><li> Objectives : Restor functions as early as possible.
  69. 69. Redundancy or alternatives arranged for identified critical functions.
  70. 70. Alternative site, supplier arrangement
  71. 71. Roles and responsibilities for restoration identified</li></ul>- e.g recovery manager and team, communications, utilities, purchasing, Hr and site security.<br />
  72. 72. 20<br />MITIGATION MEASURE<br /><ul><li> Interim andlong term- to eliminate or reduce impact of hazard that cannot be eliminated.
  73. 73. Access, escape routes and shelters
  74. 74. Early warning – Establishment of hazard warning and communication procedures.
  75. 75. Materials – removal , reduction, modification, segregation, or elimination.
  76. 76. Heat, fluids. Etc protective system, redundancy, control, of rate of release.
  77. 77. Structures- building construction standards</li></li></ul><li>21<br />RESOURCE PLANNING<br /><ul><li> Based on identified threats and hazards.
  78. 78. Fire, flood, explosion, spills, collapse
  79. 79. Existing external and internal resources.
  80. 80. Identify resource shortfalls and alternate sources.
  81. 81. Consideration for mutual aid agreements.
  82. 82. Arrangements with vendors and suppliers.</li></li></ul><li>22<br />IDENTIFY FOR EACH THREAT OR HAZARD.<br /><ul><li> Resource and Logistic</li></ul> - Personal training, expert knowledge, materials.<br /><ul><li>Available in timely manner and have the capability to do its intended function.
  83. 83. Quantity, response time, operability.
  84. 84. Equipment and facilities</li></ul>-Fire fighting , heavy equipment, medical supplies<br /><ul><li> Miscellaneous</li></ul>- Food, clothing and shelter for evacuees, religious personel, volunteer and social / political groups.<br />
  85. 85. 23<br />EMERGENCY TO BE MADE AVAILABLE<br /><ul><li> command post
  86. 86. Identified, equipped, tested and maintained
  87. 87. Operations manual
  88. 88. Personnel protective equipment list
  89. 89. Where needed toxic, explosive gas detectors, wind indicators.
  90. 90. Resources from external sources.</li></li></ul><li>24<br />REGULAR TESTOF EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES<br /><ul><li> Check and document alarm system frequently.
  91. 91. Frequent tests of fire fighting equipment</li></li></ul><li>25<br />IMMEDIATE STRATEGIC PLANS<br /><ul><li> Identification of vital personnel ( core team ) systems, operations and equipments.
  92. 92. Priorities for restoration and mitigation.
  93. 93. Acceptable downtime before restoration to a minimum level.
  94. 94. Minimum resources needed to accomplish the restoration.</li></li></ul><li>26<br />PLANS<br /><ul><li> Written plans
  95. 95. Strategic
  96. 96. Operationss
  97. 97. Mitigation
  98. 98. Recovery plans
  99. 99. Roles and responsibilities
  100. 100. Incident commander, recovery manager, communication and public relations.
  101. 101. Lines of authority</li></li></ul><li>27<br />EMERGENCY OPERATING MANUALS<br /><ul><li> For refer during an emergency.
  102. 102. Who does what, information and data.
  103. 103. Balance between overview and detailed response.
  104. 104. Need to know, nice to know.
  105. 105. Sound understanding enables flexibility.
  106. 106. simple language</li></li></ul><li>28<br />INCIDENT PROCEDURES<br /><ul><li> Control of access to the area.
  107. 107. Identification of personnel at the incident
  108. 108. Accounting for personnel in incident activities.
  109. 109. Accounting for person affected, displaced, or injured by the emergency.
  110. 110. Mobilisation and demobilisation of resources.</li></li></ul><li>29<br />TRAINING<br /><ul><li>Familiarisation
  111. 111. Manual familiarisation, specific courses ( chemical fire, rescue, decontamination, media etc )
  112. 112. Personnel readliness
  113. 113. Know the fundamental role
  114. 114. Know your way around the manual.
  115. 115. Have your personal aid ready
  116. 116. Know the early action well.
  117. 117. Ensure alternate is ready. </li></li></ul><li>30<br />EXERCISE AND DRILLS<br /><ul><li> Types and subjects
  118. 118. Types : Simulated, “ Real “
  119. 119. Subjects : Operational, security, Commercial.
  120. 120. Preparation for exercise
  121. 121. Scenarios, timing of events, roles ( including media ) and resources.
  122. 122. Secret but forewarn other parties as necessary.</li></li></ul><li>31<br />EVALUATION<br /><ul><li> Plan should be reviewed anually and updated as necessary.
  123. 123. Be re- evaluated when :
  124. 124. There are changes ( Regulatory, new hazard, existing hazard changes )
  125. 125. resources or organizational structure change.
  126. 126. After test, drills or exercise
  127. 127. After disaster responses
  128. 128. Infrastructure changes.</li>
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