Bab 2 incident prevention


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Bab 2 incident prevention

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 INCIDENTS PREVENTIONUnderstand the concepts of incident2.1.1 Define incidents2.1.2 Define accidents2.2 Understand principle of incidents prevention2.2.1 Explain principle of incidents prevention2.3 Recognize causes of incident2.3.1 Classify the types of incident2.3.2 Determine three model of accident theorya. Heinrich’s Theoryb. Multiple Causation Theoryc. Bird Loss Causation Model2.3.3 Discover the three basic causes of incidenta. Basic causesb. Indirect causesc. Direct causes2.4 Understand incidents prevention costs2.4.1 List the design costs2.4.2 List the operational costs2.4.3 List safe guarding of the future costs2.5 Know accident prevention programme2.5.1 State management commitment in accident prevention2.5.2 Develop the accident prevention planning2.5.3 Determine the accident prevention training 1 1
  2. 2. What is An Incident???•An unexpected, unplanned event in a sequence of events.•That occurs through a combination of causes.•Which result in : Physical harm ( injury, ill-health or disease ) to an individual Damage to property A near miss Any combination of these effects. 2
  3. 3. Why Prevent Incident??? •Legal •Human right •Business 3
  4. 4. 6 Principles of INCIDENTS PREVENTION by Ministry of Labour and National Services UK ( 1956 )•Accident prevention is an essential part of good management and ofgood workmanship.•Management and workers must fully cooperate.•Top management must take the lead in organising safety.•There must be definite and known safety policy in workplace.•The organisation and resources necessary to carry out the policymust exist.•The best available knowledge and method must be applied. 4
  5. 5. Types of INCIDENTSCause immediate injury or damage toequipment or property-a forklift dropping a load- Someone falling off a ladder.Occur over an extended period-Hearing loss- Illness resulting from exposure to chemicals. 5
  6. 6. Model of ACCIDENTS THEORYDomino TheoryLoss causation modelMulti – causality Accident Model 6
  7. 7. Domino TheoryIntroduced by Herbert W.Heinrich ( 1930 ).Injury from an accident is the result of a series of events that isdependent on each other.-Injuries are caused by accidents- Accidents are caused by unsafe acts and unsafe condition.- Unsafe acts and unsafe condition are caused by the faults ofperson.- Faults of person are caused by a personal flaw such as violenttemper, nervousness or ignorance.- The injured worker’ s ancestry and social environment. ancestry person Hazard accidents Injuries 7
  8. 8. Multicausality Accident ModelRefers to the facts that there may be more that one cause toany accident.Example: Someone who had tripping accident over a piece ofwood lying on a floor in a dark walkway. Cause A ( poor lighting ) Cause B ( Not look where Accident ( Trip) going ) Cause C ( Wood in walkway ) 8
  9. 9. Loss Causation Model Introduced by Frank E. Bird ( 1970 ). Revised Heinrich Domino. Blaming management Threshold Limit Lack of Basic Immediate Incidents Loss Control causes causes Inadequate sys Personal factors Substandard act/practice Event Iunintended harm or Damage Inadequate Stand Job/syt factors Subst. ConditioInadequate Compliance 9
  10. 10. 3 Basic Causes of Accident Basic Causes Poor Management Safety Policy & Decision Peronal factors Environment factorsUnsafe act Indirect Causes Unsafe condition Unplanned accidents ACCIDENTS direct Causes Personal injury, Property damage 10
  11. 11. Cost of Incident Prevention Insured : RM 1 uninsured : RM 8~36Accident Cost Iceberg 11
  12. 12. Cost of Incident Preventioni ) Design cost: Installing machine guard to protect workerii) Operational cost : Running a Safety Department ( training, PPE )iii) Planning and consequence- limiting costSafeguarding the future, cost for environmental sampling, safetyaudit. 12
  13. 13. Du Pont Ten Principles of Safety Management•All injuries and occupational illness are preventable•Management is directly responsible for doing this•Safety is condition of employment•Training is required•Safety audit and inspection must be carried out.•Deficiencies must be corrected•All unsafe practices, incidents and injury accidents will beinvestigated.•Safety away from work is as important as safety at work.•Accident prevention is cost effective; the highest cost is humansuffering.•Employees must be actively involved. 13