• Factors that influence listening – our general personality – the environment in which the message is presented – our immediate intentions and needs
CONTENT LISTENING• “Learn to listen and listen to learn.”• The goal in content listening is to achieve exact correspondence between the message, as presented, and our recollection of it.
• Content listening is made up of three basic skills: – ABSTRACTING, derived from the Latin abstrahere, which means to draw out, is the ability to identify major ideas in a message and to synthesize them into a summary of the overall points being made; – CHUNKING is the ability to cluster ideas; – OUTLINING is the ability to identify and organize those major points that elaborate, support, clarify, or approve the main ideas.
CRITICAL LISTENING• A critical listener acts not only as a recorder but also as a judge.• The following are the principles of critical analysis: – We have to differentiate facts from opinions; – We have to know that statements should not always be taken at face value – that sometimes important assumptions lie beneath any statement.
THE FIVE STANDARDS OF SPEECH CRITICISM STANDARD How Applied to a Speech Validity Adequate proof; nothing important is omitted Ethics Fairness to listeners and to opponents Quality Recognized principles of good content and delivery Truth Honest facts, accurate interpretations Effectiveness Measurement of how listeners actually responded
• VALIDITY – is valid when the conclusions of the message make good sense given the supporting information provided by the speaker.• ETHICS – this refers to the principles of right action. It is derived from the Greek ethos which means rules of right manner of behaving.
• QUALITY – standard quality in speech could be derived from the canons of rhetoric. Speeches show good quality when they are founded on strong arguments and when they show sensible and rational organization.• TRUTH – it refers to the veracity of the statement of the speaker.
• EFFECTIVENESS – the general purposes of public speaking is to inform, to persuade, to inspire and to entertain. One way of judging whether a speech is effective is whether it has achieved or realized one of these objectives.
SPEECH CRITERIA • Introduction • Organization of the Body • Content of the Body • Style • voice• Other Non-Verbal Factors • Conclusion • Purpose