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Perception  Amanpreet Makkar
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Perception Amanpreet Makkar

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awsome one...u'l really lyk it enjoy...itz

awsome one...u'l really lyk it enjoy...itz

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  • 1.  
  • 2. What do you see? Now what do you see?
  • 3. “ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”
  • 4.
    • Perception is YOUR
    • interpretation of “reality”
    • after information/stimuli is …
      • F iltered out
      • S elected
      • O rganized
      • D efined
      • … .using YOUR existing…
    • K nowledge
    • N eeds
    • B eliefs
    • V alues
    • A ssumptions
    • A ttitudes
  • 5.
    • The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.
    DEFINING PERCEPTION
  • 6. INFLUENCES ON PERCEPTION
    • Physiology : Differences in sensory abilities
    • Age : Changes attitudes on time; more experience the older we get
    • Culture : Different beliefs
    • Social Roles : Different roles we take on during our lives (sister, brother, wife, husband, student, instructor, etc.)
    • Cognitive Abilities : Think multi dimensionally about different situations
  • 7.
    • Characteristics of the perceiver:
      • The perceptual process is influenced by the perceiver’s:
        • Past experiences.
        • Needs or motives.
        • Personality.
        • Values and attitudes.
    FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION
  • 8.
    • Characteristics of the perceived:
      • The perceptual process is influenced by characteristics of the perceived person, object, or event, such as:
        • Contrast.
        • Intensity.
        • Figure-ground separation.
        • Size.
        • Motion.
        • Repetition or novelty.
  • 9. STAGES OF THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
    • Information attention and selection:
      • Selective screening.
        • Lets in only a tiny proportion all the information that bombards a person.
      • Two types of selective screening.
        • Controlled processing.
        • Screening without perceiver’s conscious awareness.
  • 10.
    • Information interpretation:
      • Uncovering the reasons behind the ways stimuli are grouped.
      • People may interpret the same information differently or make different attributions about information.
  • 11.
    • Information retrieval:
      • Attention and selection, organization, and interpretation are part of memory.
      • Information stored in memory must be retrieved in order to be used.
  • 12.
    • Response to the perceptual process:
      • Thoughts.
      • Feelings.
      • Actions.
  • 13. WHAT IS ATTRIBUTION THEORY?
    • Attribution theory aids in perceptual interpretation by focusing on how people attempt to:
      • Understand the causes of a certain event.
      • Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event.
      • Evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event.
  • 14. ATTRIBUTION THEORY
    • When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
    observation Interpretation Attribution of cause Consistency Consensus Distictinctiveness Individual behavior Internal External Internal External Internal External H L H L H L H –high L- Low
  • 15. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
    • Sensation
      • An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment.
    • Selection
      • The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing.
    • Organization
      • The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.”
    • Translation
      • The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.
  • 16. Receiving Stimuli (External & Internal) Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature, Location, Size, contrast, Movement, repetition, similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs, age, Interest, Organizing Figure Background , Perceptual Grouping ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity) Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior PERCEPTUAL PROCESS Interpreting Attribution ,Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection
  • 17.
    • FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION
    • Factors in the perceiver
    • Attitudes
    • Motives
    • Interests
    • Experience
    • Expectations
    Perception
    • Factors in the Target
    • Novelty
    • Motion
    • Sounds
    • Size
    • Background
    • Proximity
    • Similarity
    • Factors in the situation
    • Time
    • Work Setting
    • Social Setting
  • 18. 16.01.2010/ Reshmi Pillai/ OB THANK YOU !!!!! Amanpreet Singh Makkar

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