Three term contingency The interaction between existing behavior and the environment It’s as easy as A, B, C Antecedent Behavior Consequence
Principles of Behavior They describe a basic relationship between behavior and its controlling variables Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment by presentation Punishment by removal Extinction
Positive Reinforcement Stimulus presented Contingent on a response Which increases the future probability of the response Drinking a glass of water when thirsty High five from buddy after catching the ball Comments on a new haircut, return to same stylist
Negative Reinforcement Stimulus removed Contingent on a response Which increases the future probability of the response Hitting the snooze alarm to escape loud noise Slowing down when you see a cop to avoid a ticket Swearing, getting kicked out to escape math class
Punishment Removal Stimulus taken away that decreases future probability of the behavior Presentation Stimulus presented that decreases the future probability of the behavior
Punishment & Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Get something good Negative Reinforcement Avoid or escape something aversive Punishment by Presentation Get something aversive Punishment by removal Removal of something good
Negative reinforcement is when you take something away and the behavior decreases True or False? False
Positive reinforcement involves giving something to someone and increases future behavior True or False? True
A classroom teacher walks by a student and says, “I like how you’re doing your math quietly”, after which the student begins talking to his neighbor. This is an example of positive reinforcement True or False? False
A behavior that has been negatively reinforced will occur less often True or False? False
A teacher gives a student a “good behavior coupon” for arriving to school on time The student continues to arrive on- time This is an example of positive reinforcement True
The principal sends a student home for fighting The student returns to school the next day and gets into another fight This is an example of punishment by removal False
This is an example of positivereinforcement False
•The next night the baby cries again inthe night and gets to sleep with momand dad•This is an example of positivereinforcement for the baby True
Steve was kicked out of math class for disruptive behavior and sent to IHS for the remainder of the period Steve was also then kicked out of science for disruptive behavior and sent to IHS This is an example of punishment by removal False
Target Behaviors The behavior targeted for observation, measurement, and assessment and/or modification Defined by teachers as the behavior needing to be learned, increased, or decreased Once identified – it must be defined Must be observable and measurable
Target Behavior: Characteristics of Good Definitions Objective: such that the specific instances of the response class can be detected, observed, and recorded reliably Clear: unambiguous, such that others can use and replicate Complete: such that the definition discriminates the target behavior from other, similar but nontarget behaviors and allows for accurate coding
Target Behaviors Kim does not do what the teacher asks When given a direction by the teacher, Kim fails to initiate the behavior within 5 seconds Andy is hyperactive Andy is out of his seat more than one time in 10 minutes Fred does not ride the school bus properly Fred is out of his assigned seat on the bus
Target Behaviors Betsy is aggressive Betsy hits, kicks, pushes and calls other children names during recess Billy is withdrawn Billy initiates less than one interaction with a peer in any given 10-minute free play period
Defining Target Behavior On-task Out-of-seat Makes rude comments Gets better grades Off-task Aggressive Does homework
On-Task Definition The target behavior to increase is on task behavior for independent tasks during literary center time. Looks like: the student actively working on the task, with his eyes not leaving his paper for more than five seconds at a time and his pencil in his hand. Looks like/Sounds like: the student is in his seat and not talking to any other students unless prompted to. The student will also have a quiet mouth, with no talking, humming, whistling, etc.
Out-of-Seat DefinitionGeneral description of behavior Billy leaves his seat without permission while I am teaching class as a wholeTarget behavior definition Leaving seat without permission during whole group instruction No body parts touching desk or seat
Verbal DefinitionStudent makes vocal verbal response that is non-content related, out of turn, and directed at another person in relation to others’ academic ability, social skills, family, or personal characteristics.
Accuracy DefinitionMeasurement of the target behavior is thepercentage of correct responses. A correctresponse includes factual and completeresponses that correspond to the in-class task orassignment. A correct answer can take a varietyof forms including, letters, numbers, words,mathematical symbols, punctuation marks,circling, etc.
Off-Task Student’s work is out of his visual field for more than 3 consecutive seconds during all occasions except those beyond his control (e.g. teacher took it away, hasn’t been handed out yet, waiting for help from an adult). Student is conversing with someone other than an adult. The only exception to this is when the student is talking to someone else that is engaged in the same task and none of the other criteria for off-task behaviors have been met.
Physical Aggression Physical Aggression: Kicking, hitting, pushing, or head butting any staff, peer, property, or self. Kicking, Hitting, Head-Butting: Forceful contact made by the student’s foot, arm, hand, or head towards any staff, peer, property, or self. Pushing: Making contact with the palm of the hands on any staff, peer, or property resulting in the movement of the property or person.
Productivity Definition Jason will increase his math productivity by attempting math problems. An attempt will be recorded if an answer is content related and is given in the form of a written answer on paper, on dry erase board, whispered, or verbalized.
Dimensions of Behavior Frequency: Number of times a response occurs Duration: Length of time to complete a response or total amount of time that a response occurs Rate: Number of occurrences per unit of time Latency: Amount of time it takes to begin a behavior once an antecedent is present
Frequency Recording Behaviors that are well-defined are easily recorded with this strategy Behaviors that are brief and discrete Simple numerical count is sufficient, but recording the time period in which the behavior occurred is critical If observation sessions vary in length convert data to rate (# of behaviors/time)
Duration Recording If the length of the response is the major characteristic duration may be the best dimension to record Monitored by any watch or clock Record cumulative time of a target behavior Total duration is more convenient, duration per occurrence is more accurate
Rate Frequency of TB divided by the number of minutes Useful when observation periods are not constant and vary in duration Recommended when reporting the number of times behavior occurred unless the observation periods are constant
Latency Recording Start a timer when the cue (e.g., verbal instruction) is presented and stop the timer when the student complies with the request Often the goal is to decrease latency For students who are impulsive, teaching them to increase latency might be an effective tool
Magnitude Force or strength of a behavior Aggression, temper tantrums, verbal responses, noises and body movements Crying – frequency and duration the same, but magnitude may decrease from a scream to a whimper
SupposeYou want to evaluate the effectiveness of your efforts to teach your students the leisure skill of bowling…
MeasurementWhat are some characteristics of interest you might want to address? Frequency Number of times a discrete response occurs in a standard observation period Repetition of one topography is usually the salient dimension Example: Number of times per game student selects the correct bowling ball to throw
Measurement Rate Frequency of response per unit of time Used when duration of observation period varies Example: Number of times per minute student makes positive comment related to team members’ bowling performance.
Measurement Latency Time to onset of response Every instance of behavior can be located in time with respect to other events. Example: The time that elapses from when it is student’s turn to bowl and when he picks up the bowling ball.
Measurement Magnitude Amount, amplitude, intensity, or force of a response Usually addressed in definition (i.e., what constitutes a minimal response). Example: Force of throwing bowling ball (enough to make it to the pins).
Measurement Duration Length of time to complete a response or total amount of time that a response occurs Example: Number of seconds to complete putting on bowling shoes (removing and storing street shoes, retrieving and putting on bowling shoes, tying laces).
Measurement Frequency = Number of times a response occurs Rate = Number of occurrences per unit of time
Measurement Duration = Length of time to complete a response or total amount of time that a response occurs
Interval Recording Requires your full attention Can observe several behaviors/students simultaneously Effective for behaviors that occur too frequently to count (hand flapping) Break the observation period down into smaller intervals of equal length Observe whether the behavior occurs or does not occur during the interval Whole interval (occurs the entire time) or partial interval (any occurrence at all)
Time sampling Useful if you want to ‘sample’ behaviors across an extended time period or settings Similar to interval, but the intervals are much longer, are less frequent and may be variable For example; 5-min sample from 1 hour, one sample every 5-min Momentary-time sampling Rate the occurrence/non-occurrence of the target behavior following a specified interval
Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval Continuous measure
Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval Continuous measure + 0 0 0 + +
Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval Continuous measure
Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval Continuous measure + + + + + 5 /6 = 83%
Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval Continuous measure + + + + + + 5 / 6 = 83 %
Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval Continuous measure + + + + + + 5 / 6 = 83 % + + + 3 /3 = 100 %
Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval Continuous measure
Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval Continuous measure + + 0 0 + + 4/6 = 66%
Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval Continuous measure + + 0 0 + + 4 / 6 = 66%
Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval Continuous measure + + 0 0 + + 4 / 6 = 66% + 0 + 2/3 = 66%
Which recording procedure yielded the mostsensitive measure of behavior in this situation? Continuous measure 10-s interval 20-s intervalWhole Interval 50 % 33 %Partial Interval 80 % 100 %MTS 66 % 66 %
Accuracy of Observation and Measures Reactivity: changes in behavior of person being observed Observer drift: gradual shift by the observer of understanding of the target behavior Recording procedure: procedure selected to measure the dimensions of a behavior (duration) Observer expectancy: expectations teachers have about the children they observe Personal values/bias: social, cultural, or religious values that affect teacher’s perception of behavior
Data Collection Aids Pocket counting: transfer pennies from one to another Empty jar: drop pennies into jar each time TB occurs (take out each time TB occurs) Masking tape on the wrist: names on the tape and slash marks next to name when TB occurs
Reliability of Observations Reliability: refers to accuracy of data collected across observers (IOA) Reliability for: Frequency counts Duration and latency Interval recording and time sampling (see book for each formula)
Recording Observations Permanent product recording: materials that are produced as a result of behavior Data collection form: prepared sheet of paper used to record raw data during observations Coding system: list of codes added to the data sheet that assists teachers in efficiently recording TB