Data Collection Techniques   Agenda     Probe 2 (15)     Lecture: Chapter 5 (15)     Lecture: Target Behaviors, Measur...
Three term contingency   The interaction between existing behavior and    the environment   It’s as easy as A, B, C   A...
Principles of Behavior   They describe a basic relationship between    behavior and its controlling variables     Positi...
Positive Reinforcement   Stimulus presented   Contingent on a response   Which increases the future probability of the ...
Negative Reinforcement   Stimulus removed   Contingent on a response   Which increases the future probability of the   ...
Punishment   Removal       Stimulus taken away that decreases future probability        of the behavior   Presentation ...
Punishment & Reinforcement   Positive Reinforcement       Get something good   Negative Reinforcement       Avoid or e...
   Negative reinforcement is when you take    something away and the behavior    decreases   True or False?             ...
   Positive reinforcement involves giving    something to someone and increases future    behavior   True or False?     ...
   A classroom teacher walks by a    student and says, “I like how you’re    doing your math quietly”, after    which the...
   A behavior that has been negatively reinforced    will occur less often   True or False?                             ...
   A teacher gives a student a “good    behavior coupon” for arriving to    school on time   The student continues to ar...
   The principal sends a student home    for fighting   The student returns to school the    next day and gets into anot...
This is an example of positivereinforcement                    False
•The next night the baby cries again inthe night and gets to sleep with momand dad•This is an example of positivereinforce...
   Steve was kicked out of math class    for disruptive behavior and sent to    IHS for the remainder of the period   St...
Target Behaviors   The behavior targeted for observation,    measurement, and assessment and/or    modification   Define...
Target Behavior: Characteristics          of Good Definitions   Objective: such that the specific instances of    the res...
Target Behaviors   Kim does not do what the teacher asks   When given a direction by the teacher, Kim fails    to initia...
Target Behaviors   Betsy is aggressive   Betsy hits, kicks, pushes and calls other children    names during recess   Bi...
Defining Target Behavior   On-task   Out-of-seat   Makes rude comments   Gets better grades   Off-task   Aggressive...
On-Task Definition   The target behavior to increase is on task    behavior for independent tasks during literary    cent...
Out-of-Seat DefinitionGeneral description of behavior Billy leaves his seat without permission while I  am teaching class...
Verbal DefinitionStudent makes vocal verbal response that is  non-content related, out of turn, and  directed at another p...
Accuracy DefinitionMeasurement of the target behavior is thepercentage of correct responses. A correctresponse includes fa...
Off-Task   Student’s work is out of his visual field for    more than 3 consecutive seconds during all    occasions excep...
Physical Aggression   Physical Aggression: Kicking, hitting,    pushing, or head butting any staff, peer,    property, or...
Productivity Definition   Jason will increase his math productivity by    attempting math problems. An attempt will be   ...
Dimensions of Behavior   Frequency: Number of times a response    occurs   Duration: Length of time to complete a    res...
Frequency Recording   Behaviors that are well-defined are easily    recorded with this strategy   Behaviors that are bri...
Duration Recording   If the length of the response is the major    characteristic duration may be the best    dimension t...
Rate   Frequency of TB divided by the number of    minutes   Useful when observation periods are not    constant and var...
Latency Recording   Start a timer when the cue (e.g., verbal    instruction) is presented and stop the timer    when the ...
Magnitude   Force or strength of a behavior       Aggression, temper tantrums, verbal responses,        noises and body ...
SupposeYou want to evaluate the effectiveness of your efforts to teach your students the       leisure skill of bowling…
MeasurementWhat are some characteristics of interest you might want to address?   Frequency     Number of times a discre...
Measurement   Rate     Frequency of response per unit of time     Used when duration of observation period varies    Ex...
Measurement   Latency     Time to onset of response     Every instance of behavior can be located in time      with res...
Measurement   Magnitude     Amount, amplitude, intensity, or force of a      response     Usually addressed in definiti...
Measurement   Duration       Length of time to complete a response or total        amount of time that a response occurs...
Measurement   Frequency = Number of times a response occurs   Rate = Number of occurrences per unit of time
Measurement   Duration = Length of time to complete a response    or total amount of time that a response occurs
Interval Recording   Requires your full attention   Can observe several behaviors/students    simultaneously   Effectiv...
Time sampling   Useful if you want to ‘sample’ behaviors across    an extended time period or settings   Similar to inte...
Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval    Continuous measure
Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval    Continuous measure        +      0 ...
+         0       0          0       ++                                                                   3 / 6 = 50 %PERC...
Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval    Continuous measure
Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval    Continuous measure          +     0...
Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval    Continuous measure
Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval    Continuous measure         +       + ...
Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval    Continuous measure         +       + ...
Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval    Continuous measure          +        ...
Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval    Continuous measure
Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval    Continuous measure         +      +...
Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval    Continuous measure         +      +...
Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval    Continuous measure          +     +...
Which recording procedure yielded the mostsensitive measure of behavior in this situation?    Continuous measure          ...
Accuracy of Observation and                Measures   Reactivity: changes in behavior of person being    observed   Obse...
Data Collection Aids   Pocket counting: transfer pennies from one to    another   Empty jar: drop pennies into jar each ...
Reliability of Observations   Reliability: refers to accuracy of data collected    across observers (IOA)   Reliability ...
Recording Observations   Permanent product recording: materials that are    produced as a result of behavior   Data coll...
Displaying Observational Data:                                         Line Graphs                                  Baseli...
Displaying Observational Data:                                      Cumulative Graphs                                  Bas...
Displaying Observational Data:                                      Bar Graphs                                Baseline    ...
Baseline and Intervention   Baseline: refers to the measurement of the TB    prior to implementation of any intervention...
Accelerating Trend                                Baseline                          100                           90      ...
Decelerating Trend                                Baseline                          100                           90      ...
Variable Trend                                Baseline                          100                           90          ...
Stable Trend                                Baseline                          100                           90            ...
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  • Sometimes magnitude will of interest and need to have a sensitive instrument to detect variations (e.g., volume of dormitory noise, force squeezing tool for rehab).
  • T bs and_dc_449

    1. 1. Data Collection Techniques Agenda  Probe 2 (15)  Lecture: Chapter 5 (15)  Lecture: Target Behaviors, Measurement (60)  Break (10)  Activity: Target Behavior Definitions (30)  Session Lesson (30-45)  Lecture (If time allows): Recording Data, Reliability, Graphs (20)
    2. 2. Three term contingency The interaction between existing behavior and the environment It’s as easy as A, B, C Antecedent Behavior Consequence
    3. 3. Principles of Behavior They describe a basic relationship between behavior and its controlling variables  Positive reinforcement  Negative reinforcement  Punishment by presentation  Punishment by removal  Extinction
    4. 4. Positive Reinforcement Stimulus presented Contingent on a response Which increases the future probability of the response  Drinking a glass of water when thirsty  High five from buddy after catching the ball  Comments on a new haircut, return to same stylist
    5. 5. Negative Reinforcement Stimulus removed Contingent on a response Which increases the future probability of the response  Hitting the snooze alarm to escape loud noise  Slowing down when you see a cop to avoid a ticket  Swearing, getting kicked out to escape math class
    6. 6. Punishment Removal  Stimulus taken away that decreases future probability of the behavior Presentation  Stimulus presented that decreases the future probability of the behavior
    7. 7. Punishment & Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement  Get something good Negative Reinforcement  Avoid or escape something aversive Punishment by Presentation  Get something aversive Punishment by removal  Removal of something good
    8. 8.  Negative reinforcement is when you take something away and the behavior decreases True or False? False
    9. 9.  Positive reinforcement involves giving something to someone and increases future behavior True or False? True
    10. 10.  A classroom teacher walks by a student and says, “I like how you’re doing your math quietly”, after which the student begins talking to his neighbor. This is an example of positive reinforcement True or False? False
    11. 11.  A behavior that has been negatively reinforced will occur less often True or False? False
    12. 12.  A teacher gives a student a “good behavior coupon” for arriving to school on time The student continues to arrive on- time This is an example of positive reinforcement True
    13. 13.  The principal sends a student home for fighting The student returns to school the next day and gets into another fight This is an example of punishment by removal False
    14. 14. This is an example of positivereinforcement False
    15. 15. •The next night the baby cries again inthe night and gets to sleep with momand dad•This is an example of positivereinforcement for the baby True
    16. 16.  Steve was kicked out of math class for disruptive behavior and sent to IHS for the remainder of the period Steve was also then kicked out of science for disruptive behavior and sent to IHS This is an example of punishment by removal False
    17. 17. Target Behaviors The behavior targeted for observation, measurement, and assessment and/or modification Defined by teachers as the behavior needing to be learned, increased, or decreased Once identified – it must be defined  Must be observable and measurable
    18. 18. Target Behavior: Characteristics of Good Definitions Objective: such that the specific instances of the response class can be detected, observed, and recorded reliably Clear: unambiguous, such that others can use and replicate Complete: such that the definition discriminates the target behavior from other, similar but nontarget behaviors and allows for accurate coding
    19. 19. Target Behaviors Kim does not do what the teacher asks When given a direction by the teacher, Kim fails to initiate the behavior within 5 seconds Andy is hyperactive Andy is out of his seat more than one time in 10 minutes Fred does not ride the school bus properly Fred is out of his assigned seat on the bus
    20. 20. Target Behaviors Betsy is aggressive Betsy hits, kicks, pushes and calls other children names during recess Billy is withdrawn Billy initiates less than one interaction with a peer in any given 10-minute free play period
    21. 21. Defining Target Behavior On-task Out-of-seat Makes rude comments Gets better grades Off-task Aggressive Does homework
    22. 22. On-Task Definition The target behavior to increase is on task behavior for independent tasks during literary center time. Looks like: the student actively working on the task, with his eyes not leaving his paper for more than five seconds at a time and his pencil in his hand. Looks like/Sounds like: the student is in his seat and not talking to any other students unless prompted to. The student will also have a quiet mouth, with no talking, humming, whistling, etc.
    23. 23. Out-of-Seat DefinitionGeneral description of behavior Billy leaves his seat without permission while I am teaching class as a wholeTarget behavior definition Leaving seat without permission during whole group instruction No body parts touching desk or seat
    24. 24. Verbal DefinitionStudent makes vocal verbal response that is non-content related, out of turn, and directed at another person in relation to others’ academic ability, social skills, family, or personal characteristics.
    25. 25. Accuracy DefinitionMeasurement of the target behavior is thepercentage of correct responses. A correctresponse includes factual and completeresponses that correspond to the in-class task orassignment. A correct answer can take a varietyof forms including, letters, numbers, words,mathematical symbols, punctuation marks,circling, etc.
    26. 26. Off-Task Student’s work is out of his visual field for more than 3 consecutive seconds during all occasions except those beyond his control (e.g. teacher took it away, hasn’t been handed out yet, waiting for help from an adult). Student is conversing with someone other than an adult. The only exception to this is when the student is talking to someone else that is engaged in the same task and none of the other criteria for off-task behaviors have been met.
    27. 27. Physical Aggression Physical Aggression: Kicking, hitting, pushing, or head butting any staff, peer, property, or self.  Kicking, Hitting, Head-Butting: Forceful contact made by the student’s foot, arm, hand, or head towards any staff, peer, property, or self.  Pushing: Making contact with the palm of the hands on any staff, peer, or property resulting in the movement of the property or person.
    28. 28. Productivity Definition Jason will increase his math productivity by attempting math problems. An attempt will be recorded if an answer is content related and is given in the form of a written answer on paper, on dry erase board, whispered, or verbalized.
    29. 29. Dimensions of Behavior Frequency: Number of times a response occurs Duration: Length of time to complete a response or total amount of time that a response occurs Rate: Number of occurrences per unit of time Latency: Amount of time it takes to begin a behavior once an antecedent is present
    30. 30. Frequency Recording Behaviors that are well-defined are easily recorded with this strategy Behaviors that are brief and discrete Simple numerical count is sufficient, but recording the time period in which the behavior occurred is critical If observation sessions vary in length convert data to rate (# of behaviors/time)
    31. 31. Duration Recording If the length of the response is the major characteristic duration may be the best dimension to record Monitored by any watch or clock Record cumulative time of a target behavior Total duration is more convenient, duration per occurrence is more accurate
    32. 32. Rate Frequency of TB divided by the number of minutes Useful when observation periods are not constant and vary in duration Recommended when reporting the number of times behavior occurred unless the observation periods are constant
    33. 33. Latency Recording Start a timer when the cue (e.g., verbal instruction) is presented and stop the timer when the student complies with the request Often the goal is to decrease latency For students who are impulsive, teaching them to increase latency might be an effective tool
    34. 34. Magnitude Force or strength of a behavior  Aggression, temper tantrums, verbal responses, noises and body movements Crying – frequency and duration the same, but magnitude may decrease from a scream to a whimper
    35. 35. SupposeYou want to evaluate the effectiveness of your efforts to teach your students the leisure skill of bowling…
    36. 36. MeasurementWhat are some characteristics of interest you might want to address? Frequency  Number of times a discrete response occurs in a standard observation period  Repetition of one topography is usually the salient dimension Example: Number of times per game student selects the correct bowling ball to throw
    37. 37. Measurement Rate  Frequency of response per unit of time  Used when duration of observation period varies Example: Number of times per minute student makes positive comment related to team members’ bowling performance.
    38. 38. Measurement Latency  Time to onset of response  Every instance of behavior can be located in time with respect to other events. Example: The time that elapses from when it is student’s turn to bowl and when he picks up the bowling ball.
    39. 39. Measurement Magnitude  Amount, amplitude, intensity, or force of a response  Usually addressed in definition (i.e., what constitutes a minimal response). Example: Force of throwing bowling ball (enough to make it to the pins).
    40. 40. Measurement Duration  Length of time to complete a response or total amount of time that a response occurs Example: Number of seconds to complete putting on bowling shoes (removing and storing street shoes, retrieving and putting on bowling shoes, tying laces).
    41. 41. Measurement Frequency = Number of times a response occurs Rate = Number of occurrences per unit of time
    42. 42. Measurement Duration = Length of time to complete a response or total amount of time that a response occurs
    43. 43. Interval Recording Requires your full attention Can observe several behaviors/students simultaneously Effective for behaviors that occur too frequently to count (hand flapping) Break the observation period down into smaller intervals of equal length Observe whether the behavior occurs or does not occur during the interval Whole interval (occurs the entire time) or partial interval (any occurrence at all)
    44. 44. Time sampling Useful if you want to ‘sample’ behaviors across an extended time period or settings Similar to interval, but the intervals are much longer, are less frequent and may be variable For example;  5-min sample from 1 hour, one sample every 5-min Momentary-time sampling  Rate the occurrence/non-occurrence of the target behavior following a specified interval
    45. 45. Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval Continuous measure
    46. 46. Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval Continuous measure + 0 0 0 + +
    47. 47. + 0 0 0 ++ 3 / 6 = 50 %PERCENTAGE INTERVALS 100 BEHAVIOR OCCURRED 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 SESSIONS
    48. 48. Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval Continuous measure
    49. 49. Whole Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs for entire duration of interval Continuous measure + 0 0 0 + + 3 / 6 = 50 % + _ _ 1 / 3 = 33%
    50. 50. Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval Continuous measure
    51. 51. Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval Continuous measure + + + + + 5 /6 = 83%
    52. 52. Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval Continuous measure + + + + + + 5 / 6 = 83 %
    53. 53. Partial Interval RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs during any part of interval Continuous measure + + + + + + 5 / 6 = 83 % + + + 3 /3 = 100 %
    54. 54. Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval Continuous measure
    55. 55. Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval Continuous measure + + 0 0 + + 4/6 = 66%
    56. 56. Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval Continuous measure + + 0 0 + + 4 / 6 = 66%
    57. 57. Momentary Time Sample (MTS) RecordingRecord + if behavior occurs at end of interval Continuous measure + + 0 0 + + 4 / 6 = 66% + 0 + 2/3 = 66%
    58. 58. Which recording procedure yielded the mostsensitive measure of behavior in this situation? Continuous measure 10-s interval 20-s intervalWhole Interval 50 % 33 %Partial Interval 80 % 100 %MTS 66 % 66 %
    59. 59. Accuracy of Observation and Measures Reactivity: changes in behavior of person being observed Observer drift: gradual shift by the observer of understanding of the target behavior Recording procedure: procedure selected to measure the dimensions of a behavior (duration) Observer expectancy: expectations teachers have about the children they observe Personal values/bias: social, cultural, or religious values that affect teacher’s perception of behavior
    60. 60. Data Collection Aids Pocket counting: transfer pennies from one to another Empty jar: drop pennies into jar each time TB occurs (take out each time TB occurs) Masking tape on the wrist: names on the tape and slash marks next to name when TB occurs
    61. 61. Reliability of Observations Reliability: refers to accuracy of data collected across observers (IOA) Reliability for:  Frequency counts  Duration and latency  Interval recording and time sampling (see book for each formula)
    62. 62. Recording Observations Permanent product recording: materials that are produced as a result of behavior Data collection form: prepared sheet of paper used to record raw data during observations Coding system: list of codes added to the data sheet that assists teachers in efficiently recording TB
    63. 63. Displaying Observational Data: Line Graphs Baseline 100 90 80 70Frequency of Aggression 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SESSIONS
    64. 64. Displaying Observational Data: Cumulative Graphs Baseline 100 90 80Frequency of Aggression 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SESSIONS
    65. 65. Displaying Observational Data: Bar Graphs Baseline 100 90Frequency of Aggression 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SESSIONS
    66. 66. Baseline and Intervention Baseline: refers to the measurement of the TB prior to implementation of any intervention Collect baseline data until data is stable
    67. 67. Accelerating Trend Baseline 100 90 80 70Frequency of Aggression 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SESSIONS
    68. 68. Decelerating Trend Baseline 100 90 80 70Frequency of Aggression 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SESSIONS
    69. 69. Variable Trend Baseline 100 90 80 70Frequency of Aggression 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SESSIONS
    70. 70. Stable Trend Baseline 100 90 80 70Frequency of Aggression 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SESSIONS

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