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  • 1. Menjalani kehidupan / Menghadapi masalahRutin, hedonistik MeaningfullnessMenikmati/Terlarut Ingin berguna• Terima & nikmati yang ada • Kritis, ingin lebih baik• Maunya teratur-terencana • Tak mudah terima keadaan• Mapan / adem-ayem saja • Mencari alternatif / cara• Tak paham ada perubahan baru• Sulit terima perubahan • Mencari “kesulitan”• Never rock the boat • Pikiran selalu bekerja
  • 2. MOTIVATION• is the “why” of behavior , the causes, purposes, goals, needs, wants, desires, drives (Keith Davis)―The arousal, direction, and persistence of goal- directed behavior.‖ ―A process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need or motive that activates behavior or drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive or reward.‖
  • 3. Classic Motivation Theory Stick & carrot - Frederic Taylor vs Inner motivation
  • 4. PERFORMANCE / RESULT / PRODUCTION Ability + Motivational, Performance = X Knowledge Feelings Patrick Forsyth: “How to Motivate People” (Kogan Page, 2000) “Can-Do” Factors “Will-Do” Factors •Knowledge •Motivation •Skills X •Interests = Performance •Aptitudes •Personality CharacteristicsAptitude is a person’s capacity Arthur Sherman, George Bohlander, & Scott Snell to learn or acquire skills “Managing Human Resources” (South-Western College Publishing, 1996)
  • 5. Motivation A FRAMEWORK kemanjuran Needs/ The Individual Self- kemustajaban Desires/ Interest Efficacy Goals “Want to Do” The The Job Environment Attitude Signs of MotivationKnowledge, Skills, Performance Aptitude
  • 6. 3 Motivational Need Theories Maslow Alderfer McClelland Self-actualization Growth Need forHigher Esteem AchievementOrder self Need forNeeds interpersonal Power Belongingness (social & love) Relatedness Need for AffiliationLower Safety & SecurityOrder interpersonal physicalNeeds Existence Physiological
  • 7. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES Theory Source of Motivation ConsiderationsNeed Theory We are motivated by a drive Has great intuitive appeal but towards self-actualization but little empirical support. Limited (Maslow) must fulfill needs at lower levels applicability to work situations. first.Achievement We are motivated by needs for Motivation established in achievement, affiliation and childhood, but training can Motivation power. modify needs. Leaders may Theory have difficulty manipulating(McClelland) drives that originated in childhoodEquity Theory Motivation is based on the Need to understand how ―they‖ (Adams) perceptions about fairness in perceive the situations, which is the workplace difficult to do. Robert B.Burns “Psychology for Effective Managers” (Business and Professional Publishing, 1997)
  • 8. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES Theory Source of Motivation ConsiderationsExpectancy Based on the amount of efforts Expectancy Theory is well Theory needed to accomplish a task, researched /supported, but its (Vroom) the possibility of success and application to is too complex. the value of the outcome Intrinsic We are more motivated There are must tasks which offer Motivation towards tasks that increase opportunities for satisfaction, Theory feelings of competence, competence and autonomy—a personal satisfaction and difficult objective to achieve in (Deci) autonomy some employment contextsGoal-Setting We work best when are given Goal-Setting is the motivation Theory progressive feedback on theory of greatest interest (Locke, specific time-limited goals to currently – it appears to create Latham) which we have made a strong levels of motivation personal commitment
  • 9. APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION Motives Mind Situation Maslow Needs Cognitive Working ConditionsHerzberg Physiological Choice EnvironmentMcClelland Psychological: Incentives Culture Adam --Achievement Expectations Job Characteristics Lawler --Power Status Extrinsic Luthans --Affiliation Motivation et.al MotivationCsikszentmihalyi Self-Perception Heart Intrinsic Bandura Learning new Skills Emotional Choice Motivation Dweck Self-Esteem Emotional Preferences Trope Mastery Orientation Enjoyment Hackman Freedom and Control Amabile Part of Team Adolf Haasen and Gordon F.Shea: “A Better Place to Work: A New Sense of Motivation Leading to High Productivity” (AMA Management Briefing, 1997)
  • 10. FACTORS INFLUENCING MOTIVATION • Environment • Education • Understanding • Aesthetics • Self-Esteem • Heredity • Experience Tony Simmonds “Managing People and Activities” (Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1995)
  • 11. KONSEP – DIRI: Penilaian terhadap diri-sendiri; kumpulan kesan terhadap pemikiran, nilai-nilai, dan sikap diri sendiri. Dapat berubah bila mendapat penga- laman baru dan ada pendapat baru.  mengamati lingkungan  belajar dari pengalaman (gosip, ngrasani) Diri sendiri   Orang lain
  • 12. hasil penilaian terhadap diri kita sendiri- mempengaruhi: self image – self esteem. self perception Orang yang memiliki high self esteem (merasa diterima, PD, dianggap mampu, yakin, mampu kontrol diri / kendalikan kritik / mampu ha- dapi tantangan) lebih mudah juga “menerima” orang lain dan KONSEP DIRInya akan mantap.
  • 13. tidak bisa berdiri sendiri terlepas dari orang lain - ada karena “perbandingan” dengan pihak-pihak lain. terpancar saat kita berkomunikasi  persepsi orang terhadap diri kita  lingkungan menilai diri kita. “Bagaimana orang lain bereaksi terhadap kitasering ditentukan oleh bagaimana kita bertindak - ini dasar penilaian orang lain terhadap kita ”
  • 14. CHANGE • Mental barrier • Physical barrier COMFORT ZONE – Get out of it !!! Jika kita melakukan hal sama setiap hari Kita dapatkan hasil yang sama Bila ingin HASIL BERBEDA Kita harus MERUBAH tindakan
  • 15. ZONA TAK NYAMANZONANYAMANCOMFORTZONE
  • 16. KEBIASAAN – PERILAKU DAPAT DIUBAH: Pengetahuan/ Pengalaman Mau  Tekad Bertindak  Coba  Latih  ‗Paksain‘ Kebiasaan BIASA  BISA Bisa karena biasa  Kemampuan  Keterampilan 17
  • 17. Terbentuknya KEBIASAAN berulang-ulang --> PERILAKU --> POLA --> MEKANISME/otomatis Bukan bawaan / alamiah Hasil proses belajar --> DAPAT BERUBAH Pemenang punya kebiasaan melakukan kegiatan-kegiatan yang tidak disukai para pecundang. Mereka sebenarnya juga tidak menyukai kebiasaan-kebiasaan itu, namun rasa tak suka itu ditaklukkan oleh kekuatan niatnya. 18
  • 18. Maturity Development ProcessDependence Independence Interdependence Building Relationship with CustomersReactive Mentality Locus of Control NegotiationDepends on Achievement Motive Communicationexternal factors Systemic and Strategic Thinking. Physical . Physical . Physical. Emotional . Emotional . Emotional. Intellectual . Intellectual . Intellectual
  • 19. “Bergaul” di lingkungan sosial INTERDE- PENDEN TktKede- INDEPEN- DEN wa-saan DEPEN- DEN Mutu Hubungan
  • 20. Gaul,di lingkungan sosial  Saling percaya Sikap Kompetensi Seseorang dengan keyakinan Kompetensikemampu- Seseorang dengan diri, kematangan dan mentalitas an tinggi: mempunyai penge- yang “menonjol” dan dapat tahuan dan keahlian di suatu dijadikan contoh oleh orang lain bidang tertentu.
  • 21. Antusiasme menularKegembiraan menularMood jelek menularGosip bisa membuat semangat + / - menjalarProvokasi membuat semangat - (negatif) menyebar
  • 22. Motivation, Contemporary theoryBermotivasi:Semakin orang percaya bahwa ia MAMPU, semakin be-sar kemungkinannya BERHASIL. Perasaan MAMPU ini dapat DIKEM- BANGKAN. Dapat dipelajari. Dapat diatur oleh orang itu sendiri. Kalau sudah TERBIASA, ia juga da - pat MEMPENGARUHI orang lain supaya juga mempunyai perasaan MAMPU tersebut.
  • 23. David McClelland: Need for Achievement: dorongan untuk berhasil, terbaik mengatasi hambatan2, melakukan dengan efisien,, menangkan kompetisi, strive for excellence, kerjakan dengan cara baru, libatkan pemikiran jk panjang.Need for Power: untuk punya pengaruh, mengontrol, tanggungjawab, mendominasi, mengontrol, menguasai, memaksa, mengancam, menghukum – lebih superiorNeed for Affiliation: ingin bangun hubungan, perbaiki / lestarikan hubungan – aktivitas yang tonjolkan hubu- ngan antar manusia - untuk bersahabat, diterima, di- pahami, dimengerti, dihargai – mendapat “kehangatan sosial”.
  • 24. Optimism Defined Optimis Pesimis Kegagalan / temporer permanen Kemalangan terisolasi dampak / tak ada ikutan Kesalahan usaha personalKeberhasilan / Optimis Pesimis Prestasi / permanen temporerKeberuntunga dampak terisolasi n ikutan aksidental personal
  • 25. Optimis Pesimis Temporer Permanen Ah, baru sekali ini ! Payah deh ! Gagal Terisolasi deh ! Itu hanya tes ! Dampak ikutan Tak ada Usaha Saya siswa yang Saya akan belajar buruk ! lagi Personal Saya emang bodo ! Optimis Pesimis Permanen TemporerWah, sejarah baru nih ! Nggak bakalan lagi Dampak ikutan TerisolasiDunia keliatan cerah ! Ah, cuma olahraga Personal !Kita ‗kan sudah latihan Aksidental .. Beruntung saja kok !
  • 26. OPTIMIS PESIMIS Proaktif ReaktifLingkungan 10% Lingkungan 90% Diri sendiri 10% 90% KALAU……… WALAUPUN….. KARENA…….
  • 27. IF YOU THINK … If you think you can, you canand if you think you can‘t, you‘re right -- Mary Kay Ash --Kata2 mempengaruhi kondisi otak  TINDAKAN (pikiran) (Kotulak & Dr. Baxter) EMOSI POSITIF  OPTIMISME  MOTIVASI   learned optimism (posirtive thinking)
  • 28. JOHARI WINDOW DIKETAHUI DIRI TAK DIKETAHUI DIRI Feedback KDIKETAHUI e t ORANG II. Area Buta LAIN I. Area Bebas e Terbuka Terlena r b u TAK III. Tertutup IV. Tak kDIKETAHUI Diketahui a ORANG (Private Self) a LAIN Tersembunyi Tak dikenal n
  • 29. JOHARI WINDOW DIKETAHUI DIRI TAK DIKETAHUI DIRI Feedback KDIKETAHUI e ORANG I. Area Bebas II. Area Buta t LAIN e Terbuka Terlena r b u TAK III. Tertutup IV. Tak kDIKETAHUI (Private Self) Diketahui a ORANG a LAIN Tersembunyi Tak dikenal n
  • 30. JOHARI WINDOW DIKETAHUI DIRI TAK DIKETAHUI DIRI Feedback KDIKETAHUI e t ORANG LAIN I. Area Bebas II. e Terbuka Area Buta r b Terlena u TAK kDIKETAHUI III. Tertutup Tak a ORANG (Private Self) Dike- a LAIN Tersembunyi tahui n