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Nunamaker,Creativity Support Tools Nunamaker,Creativity Support Tools Presentation Transcript

  • Creativity Support Tools Jay F. Nunamaker, Jr. Regents’ and Soldwedel Professor of MIS, Computer Science & Communication The University of Arizona, Tucson
  • What is creativity?
    • “ Creativity is best described as the human capacity regularly to solveproblems or to fashion products in a domain, in a way that isinitially novel but ultimately acceptable in a culture.” (Gardner,1989)
    • “ Creative products , be they poems, scientific theories, paintings ortechnological advances, are both novel and acknowledged to bevaluable or useful in some way.” (Gilhooly, 1982)
    • “ Creativity is a process that can be observed only at the intersectionwhere individuals, domains and fields intersect.”(Csikszentmihalyi, 1999)
    • Creativity is defined as process of forming mental elements into new combinations, which either meet specified requirements or are useful (Mednick, 1962)
    • A combination of flexibility, originality, and sensitivity to ideas that enables the learner to break away from usual sequences of thought into different and productive sequence (Jones, 1972)
  • Creativity Ref: Edmonds and Candy, 2003
  • About the Nature of Creativity
    • According to Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi,
      • “ Creativity is the cultural equivalent of the process of genetic changes that result in biological evolution, where random variations take place in the chemistry of our chromosomes, below the threshold of consciousness. These changes result in the sudden appearance of a new physical characteristic in a child, and if the trait is an improvement over what existed before, it will have a greater chance to be transmitted to the child´s descendants. Most new traits may disappear after a few generations, but a few do improve survival chances, and it is these that account for biological evolution. In cultural evolution there are no mechanisms equivalent to genes and chromosomes.”
    • Can we artificially simulate this process?
    • Can we create tools to support the creativity process?
    • Can Creativity Be Enhanced?
  • Creativity Support Tools: Focus
    • Desire to increase performance in decision-making and problem-solving
    • Need to deal effectively with semi-structured and ill-structured problems
    • Creativity is vital to improved decision-making by groups or individuals
  • Communities of Creativity Authors: Inspirationalists
    • Emphasize the remarkable “Aha” moment
    • Advocate strategies to break an innovator’s mindset and have him/her perceive the problem with fresh eyes
    • Promote stimuli to elicit new ideas
      • Brainstorming, divergence
      • Free association – textual/graphic prompts
    Reference: Leonardo’s Laptop by Ben Shneiderman
  • Communities of Creativity Authors: Structuralists
    • Emphasize the more orderly approaches
    • Stress the importance of studying previous work and using methodical techniques to explore and evaluate the possible solutions exhaustively
      • e.g. How to solve it – George Polya (1957)
    • Software tool support in the form of
      • Programmable simulations (test what-if processes)
      • Scientific, engineering, mathematical models
      • Methodical visualizations (charts, decision trees)
    Reference: Leonardo’s Laptop by Ben Shneiderman
  • Communities of Creativity Authors: Situationalists
    • Emphasize intellectual, social, emotional contexts as key parts of the creative process
    • See creativity as embedded in a community of practice with changing standards
      • Want to know more about the role of collaboration with peers, advice from mentors, etc.
    • Software tool support in the form of
      • Consultation with peers and mentors
      • Dissemination of results to interested members of the field
    Reference: Leonardo’s Laptop by Ben Shneiderman
  • Possible Approaches to Enhance Creativity
    • Remove blocks
      • By understanding the unconscious influence of background, experience and habit on creativity
      • By analyzing problems
      • By learning new skills (triggers),
      • By practicing methods to release imagination (triggers),
      • By avoiding premature judgment of ideas (anonymity)
  • Models of Creativity
    • Stage models
      • Descriptive
        • Largely mechanistic (Polya, 1957; Whiting 1958)
        • 3 stages – intelligence, design & choice (Simon, 1960)
        • Clarified the nature of endeavor
        • No causal explanation why certain processed enhanced creativity
        • No guidelines for creative activities
  • Models of Creativity
    • Stage models
      • Prescriptive
        • Aimed to enhance performance by formalizing protocols that insured repeatable results
        • (Couger, 1995; Marakas, 1997; Rickards, 1974; van Gundy, 1987)
        • Do not provide a causal explanation
        • Hint at an underlying cause-and-effect mechanism
  • Models of Creativity
    • Cognitive psychology models
        • Suggests insights into the mental processes that may underlie creative thinking
        • Creativity is defined as process of forming mental elements into new combinations, which either meet specified requirements or are useful (Mednick, 1962)
        • The more mutually remote the elements of the new combination are, the more creative the resulting solution
  • Models of Creativity
    • Recently proposed cognitive psychology model
      • Cognitive Network Model (Santanen et al, 2002)
  • Cognitive Network Model (CNM) of Creativity
    • Creative ideas emerge from novel juxtapositions in working memory of concepts that had not previously been considered at the same time
    • The bigger the variety of ideas you can get people to think about in the context of their problem in a given amount of time, the more likely they are to have a creative idea
    • The benefit of increased variety of concepts is offset by the cognitive cost of switching ideas
  • Role of ThinkLets in Measuring Creativity
    • Used thinkLets as facilitation support to manipulate the cognitive model (Santanen, 2004)
    • A thinkLet constitutes the smallest unit of intellectual capital required to create one repeatable pattern of collaboration among people working toward a goal (Briggs et al, 2003)
      • Divergence thinkLets useful for doing creativity experiments
  • Experimental Results with CNM: Effect of Stimuli
    • Free brainstorming lead to widest coverage of the solution space, though creativity much lower than directed brainstorming
    • With directed brainstorming with topic switches every 2 minutes, creativity was greatest in the second half of the 40 minute session
    • With directed brainstorming with topic switches every 8 minutes, creativity was greatest in the first half of the 40 minute session
    • Topic switches every 4 minutes lead to the greatest amount of redundant solutions and "group think" across the solutions offered. Also poorer creative performance than free brainstorming
  • How to develop creativity triggers and prompts?
    • The development of the specific directed brainstorming prompts follows Couger’s (1995) guidelines for developing prompts for aiding creative problem solving
    • According to Couger, good problem solving statements contain four major elements:
      • An invitational stem, (for example, “In what ways might…”)
      • an ownership component,      (for example, “we…”)
      • an action component, and      (for example, “reduce…”)
      • a goal component.                 (for example, “the number of casualties.”)
    • These four elements provide a method for insuring uniform structure and content for the prompts that are delivered to the group as they generate solutions to the problem task
    • (Reference: Couger, J. D. (1995). Creative Problem Solving and Opportunity Finding. Boyd & Fraser Publishing Company, Danvers, MA.)
  • “ Creative” Problem Solving Approaches: Herb Simon’s 3-stage Approach
    • Intelligence – Recognizing the problem and analyzing problem information to develop a useful problem definition
    • Design – Generation of solutions
    • Choice – Selection and implementation of a solution
  • Mapping Alternative Approaches to Simon’s Framework
    • Von Fange (G.E. Creative Engineering Program)
      • Investigate direction (Intelligence)
      • Establish measures (Intelligence)
      • Develop methods (Design)
      • Optimize a structure (Design)
      • Accomplish this structure (Choice)
      • Convince others (Choice)
    • Gregory (The Scientific Problem Solving Method)
      • Deciding on the objective (Intelligence)
      • Analyzing problems (Intelligence)
      • Gathering data (Intelligence)
      • Organizing data (Intelligence)
      • Inducting (Design)
      • Planning (Design)
    • Prechecking (Choice)
    • Activating plans (Choice)
    • Evaluating (Choice)
    Ref: McPherson, J.H. “The People, The Problems, and the Problem-Solving Methods,” The Journal of Creative Behavior , vol. 2, pp. 103-110.
  • Mapping Alternative Approaches to Simon’s Framework
    • Bailey (Disciplined Creativity)
      • Problem inquiry (Intelligence)
      • Specifying goals (Intelligence)
      • Determining means (Intelligence)
      • Solution optimization (Design)
      • Construction and verification (Choice)
      • Convince others (Choice)
    • Rossman
      • Need or difficulty is observed (Intelligence)
      • Problem formulated (Intelligence)
      • Available information surveyed (Intelligence)
      • Solutions formulated (Design)
      • Solutions critically examined (Design)
      • New ideas formulated (Choice)
      • New ideas tested (Choice)
    Ref: McPherson, J.H. “The People, The Problems, and the Problem-Solving Methods,” The Journal of Creative Behavior , vol. 2, pp. 103-110.
  • Ben Shneiderman’s Creativity Framework
    • Collect – learn from previous work stored in libraries, the Web, and other sources
    • Relate – Consult with peers and mentors at early, middle, and late stages
    • Create – Explore, compose, and evaluate possible solutions
    • Donate – Disseminate the results and contribute to libraries, the Web, and other sources
  • Tasks to Support Creativity Ref: Shneiderman B., “Creativity Support Tools,” Communication of the ACM , vol.45, no.10, pp. 116-120.
  • Shneiderman’s Mapping of Creativity Framework & Tasks
  • Creativity Support Tools: Some Results
    • Automated brainstorming model facilitates creativity to a larger extent and neutralizes many of the group effects responsible for poor performance of group brainstorming in the past
      • Reference:
        • Nunamaker, J.F., Jr., Applegate, L.M., Konsynski, B.R., “Facilitating Group Creativity: Experience with a Group Decision Support System,” Journal of Management Information Systems , 3, 4, pp. 5-19, 1987.
    • Creativity declined when using the software on an analysis task even though number of alternatives increased
      • Reference:
        • Durand, D.E., VanHuss, S.E., “Creativity Software and DSS: Cautionary Findings,” Information and Management , 23, pp.1-6, 1992.
    Creativity Support Tools: Some Results
    • Analogies produce creative, but fewer ideas, due to the use of unrelated stimuli
    • Assumption reversals produced the most, but less creative ideas, possibly due to fragmentation of group memory and cognitive inertia caused by lack of forced movements among dialogues
      • Reference:
        • Hender, J.M., Dean, D.L., Rodgers, T.L., Nunamaker, J.F., Jr., “An Examination of the Impact of Stimuli Type and GSS Structure on Creativity: Brainstorming Versus Non-Brainstorming Techniques in a GSS Environment,” Journal of Management of Information , 18, 4, pp. 59-85, 2002.
    Creativity Support Tools: Some Results
    • Larger groups generate more unique ideas and more high-quality ideas
      • Reference:
        • Gallupe, R.B., Dennis, A.R., Cooper, W.H., Valacich, J.S., Bastianutti, L.N., Nunamaker, J.F., Jr. “Electronic Brainstorming and Group Size,” Academy of Management Journal , 35, 2, pp. 350-369, 1992.
    Creativity Support Tools: Some Results
  • Research Initiatives
    • The Creativity Center & Lab (since 2003)
      • Brigham Young University
      • Faculty
        • Dr. Brent Strong
        • Dr. Robert Barrett
        • Dr. Tom Erekson
      • Focus
        • To nurture creativity in individuals and groups within the BYU sphere of influence 
  • Research Initiatives
    • Center for Research on Creativity and Innovation (since 1988)
      • University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
      • Founders:
        • Dr. J. Daniel Couger, Director
        • Dr. Lex Higgins, Associate Director
      • Focus:
        • To conduct research on ways to improve creativity in organizations and to publish the results of the research
        • To work in a consulting capacity with organizations that want to improve the creativity of individuals and teams
  • Research Initiatives
    • International Center for Studies in Creativity (since 1967)
      • Buffalo State University of New York
      • Faculty
        • Dr. Gerard Puccio
        • Dr. Mary Murdock
        • Dr. Roger Firestein
      • Focus
        • To train students, groups, teams and organizations to become more effective creative thinkers and problem solvers and to instill these skills in others
        • First school to offer Master of Science in creativity
  • Research Initiatives
    • Human-Computer Interaction Lab
    • (since 1983)
      • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Faculty
        • Dr. Ben Bederson
        • Dr. Ben Shneiderman
        • and more…
      • Focus
        • To design, implement, and evaluate new interface technologies that are useable, useful, and appealing to a broad cross-section of people
  • Focus of Current Research Initiatives
    • Analyze the creativity process
    • Develop frameworks and models to augment the creativity process
    • Use computing tools and techniques to support the process
    • Develop facilitation techniques to help execute creative processes
  • Commercial Creativity Support Tools
    • ACTA Advantage
    • Axon Idea Processor
    • Brainstorm
    • BrainStormer
    • Brainstorming 1.0.1
    • Brainstorming Toolbox
    • CK Modeller
    • CM/1
    • ComedyWriter
    • Concept Draw
    • Corkboard/Three by Five
    • CreaPro
    • Creative Whack Pack
    • Creative Studio
    • Decision Explorer
    • Dramatica
    • DynoNotePad
    • Genius Handbook
    • GroupSystems II
    • Grouputer
    • Idea Generator Plus
    • IdeaFisher
    • IDEGEN++
    • In Control
    • InfoDepot
    • Innovation Toolbox
    • Inspiration
    • Invention Machine
    • MaxThink
    • MicMac
    • Microsoft Word (Outlining Feature)
    • Microsoft Word (Thesaurus Module)
    • Mind Mapper
    • MindMan
    • MoonLite
    • MORE
    • Paramind
    • Personal Best 3.1
    • Plot Prompt
    • Plots Unlimited
    • Powerpoint
    • Scriptware
    • Serious Creativity
    • Simplex
    • Sirius
    • StoryBuilder
    • StoryCraft
    • StoryCraftNet for Writers
    • SuperMemo
    • The Creativity Machine
    • The Electric Brain
    • The Electric Mind
    • The Solution Machine
    • Thoughtline
    • Thoughtpath
    • TreePad
    • Turbo Thought
    • Visimap / InfoMap
    • VisionQuest
    • Visual Outliner
    • WinGrid
    • WordPerfect
    • Yeahwrite
    Ref: Creativity Web
  • McClelland 214 McClelland 110 BPA 309 McClelland 430QQ
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  • GroupSystems Example
    • Typical applications
      • Gather project requirements
      • Analyze corporate risks
      • Marketing focus group
      • Strategic planning
    • Creativity is key in many such applications
  • GroupSystems Approach Ref: GroupSystems.com
  • GroupSystems Approach Ref: GroupSystems.com 1. Set your agenda 2. Brainstorm for new ideas 3. Organize the input 4. Gather detailed input 5. Broaden their perspective 5. Weigh alternatives 6. Get instant results 7. Manage the process 8. Generate reports
  • GroupSystems: Generate Ideas Ref: GroupSystems.com
  • GroupSystems: Organize Ideas Ref: GroupSystems.com
  • GroupSystems: Evaluate Ideas Ref: GroupSystems.com
  • GroupSystems: Evaluate Ideas Ref: GroupSystems.com
  • GroupSystems: Evaluate Ideas Ref: GroupSystems.com
  • Reflection on Existing Tools
    • Narrow and function specific
    • Does not position the tool in the overall process or problem-solving approach
    • Too generic in most cases
    • Domain specific elements not embedded
    • Lack sufficient integration with existing tools
  • Need for Developing Novel Creativity Support Tools
    • Different domains have different forms of creativity: e.g. music, art, design, etc.
    • Need to move from generic tools to domain-specific tools
    • Allow integration with other existing tools
    • Need to embed creativity support tools within other process management tools
  • Criteria for Creativity Support Tools
    • The criteria determined by Davis (1986) include:
      • Will it work? Will it do the job? Does it improve current methods?
      • Is it timely?
      • Does it reduce costs? Eliminate unnecessary work?
      • Increase productivity? Improve quality?
      • Is it too complicated? Simple and direct?
      • It is suitable? Will others accept it?
      • Are the necessary materials/resources available? (Reference: Davis, G.A. (1986). Creativity is Forever. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, IA.)
  • Challenge in developing creativity support tools
    • Developing novel ideas of supporting creativity
    • Ways to integrate various forms of creative creations in existing tools
    • Need to develop compatible action patterns and consistent terminology
  • Sea-Based Battle Lab
  •  
  • JTF Complex Onboard USS Coronado Admirals’ Club Situation Room Operations Center CMOC
  • Civil – Military Operations Center INTERNATIONAL RESCUE COMMITTEE OTHER RELIEF & BENEFIT ORGANIZATIONS INTERACTION CARE DOCTORS WITHOUT BORDERS SAVE THE CHILDREN WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME DEPT OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS UN HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES UNICEF OFDA / DART COUNTRY TEAM CMOC UN NGOs & PVOs U.S.GOV AGENCIES ICRC AMERICAN RED CROSS JP 3-57, IV-18 IFRC Courtesy of LT Randy Myrick USCINCPAC MILITARY
  • Joint Planning Center Joint Operations Center (JOC) Saran wrap needed due to dust
  • Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Exercise
    • Within the context of Rim Pac 2000
    • Collaborative applications between
      • the CMOC, the JLC, the CAT cell, and the JMC on-board the USS Coronado
      • a deployable CMOC ashore
      • several UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) ashore at the refugee camp
      • logistics supply points ashore and in other countries
      • multiple administrative sites
    • Necessitated creative solutions in a timely manner
  • Boeing Experience
    • Design-build team and the 777
    • Situation at Boeing
      • Thousands of engineers
      • Geography dispersed
      • Heterogeneous environment
    • Challenging situation for developing creative solutions collaboratively
  •  
  • Creativity at P&G
    • Creative solutions for New Product Design (NPD)
  • Facilitation for Collaborative Creativity Processes
    • Emphasis on executing processes with varied requirements such as
      • Less costly
      • Less risky
      • Faster
      • Anonymous responses
  • To Enhance Creativity
    • Increase the diversity of the participants
    • Provide anonymity
    • Provide creativity triggers
    • Illustrate tangible products through
      • prototype
      • simulation (e.g. Heineken brewery shop floor)
      • storyboards
      • mock-ups
      • graphical presentations