Lecture4 Group Decision Support And Groupware Technologies


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Lecture4 Group Decision Support And Groupware Technologies

  1. 1. Group Decision Support and Groupware Technologies Chapter 5 Modified from Marakas Organise information and improve communications ……………. DSS case study relates sharing of information to Police Dept
  2. 2. Group Decision Making <ul><li>MDM – Holsapple suggests we use the term multiparticipant decision maker </li></ul><ul><li>A group is the MDM structure where multiple decision makers completely interact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring lots of viewpoints: good or bad? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A team is the MDM structure where members advise one decision maker but do not interact </li></ul><ul><li>A committee is the MDM structure with a single decision maker and member interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Need to marry the problem context to an appropriate structure </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for consensus / majority </li></ul>
  3. 3. MDM structures GROUP COMMITTEE TEAM <ul><li>Transmission of information </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communication Networks <ul><li>The wheel network: each participant can communicate with the decision maker in the center but not with other participants. This structure is generally unsatisfying to all participants except the decision maker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like ‘Team’ scenario </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The chain network: participants relay information only to those immediately adjacent in the chain. The end members are not well satisfied. </li></ul><ul><li>Both best for recurring decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Both centralised on decision-maker </li></ul>
  5. 5. Communication Networks <ul><li>The circle network: similar to the chain, but the ends are connected </li></ul><ul><li>The completely connected network: no restriction on communication and interaction among members. Generally, the most satisfying type of network to the participants, but conveying information takes longer and there is more chance for error. </li></ul><ul><li>Both decentralised and focused more on consensus / negotiation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Group Behaviours and Norms <ul><li>MDMs establish norms (or standards of behaviour) that guide the decision-making process </li></ul><ul><li>A norm specifies what group members are expected to do under given circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Norm “sending” can be through a) examples, b)peer review or c)sanctioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) what is acceptable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) periodic assessment of past actions/behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) reward/punishment for conformity or not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success depends on fit between structure, norm and problem context </li></ul><ul><li>DSS designer must strike the balance between these forces </li></ul>
  7. 7. Deciding How to Decide <ul><li>The choice of which MDM structure to use must be based on several factors associated with the decision context. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, an individual structure would work where the decision is highly structured, DM has expertise and information is directly available. </li></ul><ul><li>A committee structure would be the choice when the decision maker cannot make the decision alone and requires wider acceptance </li></ul>See Table 5.2 page 146
  8. 8. Factors for Decision Structure  Participation motivation   Acceptance probable  Potential for conflict   Acceptance critical    Highly structured    Expertise of participants   Expertise of DM   High importance on decision quality Group Com Team Indiv Factors
  9. 9. Problem With Groups <ul><li>Size: in general, member satisfaction and cohesiveness decreases with group size. In large groups, subgroups or internal coalitions tend to form. – better judgments with many? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disengage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus easier with fewer members? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Groupthink: in large groups, people tend to think in ways that achieve unanimity instead of creativity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precludes open-mindedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits alternative considerations </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Other Sociological Issues <ul><li>Conflict: the desire to be seen as a good team member can lead to conflict avoidance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unresolved exploration of alternatives? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anonymity: one method used to control sources of conflict is to allow members to participate anonymously. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Issues: males and females tend to place different values on different skills, but this may be a strength in an MDM setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Research indicates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males are more risk taking? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females more participative </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Negotiating and Deciding <ul><li>The decision may involve multiple viewpoints, thus creating the need for negotiation – a higher probability exists for it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “tug of war” where centre shifts to a new position of acceptance by group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The design of the support mechanism for the MDM must accommodate the activities of negotiation. </li></ul><ul><li>These activities include equitable access to information and support for a wide variety of communication structures. </li></ul>
  12. 12. MDM Support Technologies <ul><li>Maturity of MDM is greater than support from technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational DSS – a system that provides decision support across the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Group Support System – technology used to aid multiple participant efforts (problems, opportunities, issues) </li></ul><ul><li>Group DSS – a system designed especially for support of an MDM </li></ul><ul><li>DSS – a system under the control of a decision maker that provides a set of tools to help structure the decision-making situation and to improve effectiveness of the decision outcome. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gains and losses in MDM activities <ul><li>Gains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole is greater than any single part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for synergistic results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction stimulates new knowledge/information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants can improve their own learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved evaluation over individual structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking time reduced/block on ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information overload / remembering all contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressures of conformity / apprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows “free riding”/ groupthink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More social than goal </li></ul></ul>Full list in Table 5.6
  14. 14. Objectives of MDM Support Technologies <ul><li>To maximise gains and minimise losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process support mechanisms focus on facilitating interaction, memory, knowledge gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process structure mechanisms govern the communication activities, timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task support mechanisms can select, organize or derive information relevant to the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task structure mechanisms provide access to techniques that filter, combine and analyze knowledge relevant to the task </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Classes/Types of MDM Support Technology <ul><li>Classification by feature – DeSanctis and Gallupe proposed a three-level scheme based on the features offered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1 System: primarily intended to facilitate communication among members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stimulate exchange of messages/ reduce comms barriers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 System: designed to reduce uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process & task structuring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More focused on issues of analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 System: help regulate the decision process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls participant interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds rigour </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Classes/Types of MDM Support Technology <ul><ul><li>Electronic Boardroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audiovisual / multimedia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teleconference Room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration Lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sophisticated brainstorming. Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commentary, consensus assessment </li></ul></ul></ul>Increasing use and complexity of technology employed Classification by technology – Kraemer and King focused on the technology applied:
  17. 17. Groupware <ul><li>Software designed to support collaboration, including capturing and storing the information exchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the Knowledge Management portfolio is capturing Organisational Memory** </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store for future decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current market leaders are Lotus Notes and Domino, Microsoft Exchange, Novell GroupWise and Oracle Office </li></ul><ul><li>Individual tools inside the Lotus Notes software suite include a meeting manager and message exchange </li></ul>**Arnold Kransdorff “Corporate Amnesia”
  18. 18. Typical Lotus Notes Messaging Screen Layout Action views Message folders Action bar Messages in inbox Preview of highlighted message
  19. 19. Groupware Classification <ul><li>Ellis, et al proposed a classification system based on type of support it provides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messaging systems i.e., e-mail - asynchronous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conferencing systems - synchronous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative authoring systems - asynch/synch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Editting a common document </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group DSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas, consensus, analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow management ( i.e. deadlines, prompts etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent agent systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Background tasks, personalised assistant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Forces Driving Groupware Development <ul><li>Some of the major factors include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced number of meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased automation of routine workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for better global coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of widespread networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coleman and Khanna list 10 other factors. </li></ul><ul><li>See Table 5.11 page 164. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Managing MDM Activities <ul><li>Some of the more common MDM coordination methods are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal group technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delphi technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue-based information system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nemawashi </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Nominal Group Technique <ul><li>Works for Group and Committee structures and follows a 4 step procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each participant writes down ideas about what the decision should be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In turn, each participant presents his or her ideas, which are recorded on a whiteboard. No discussion occurs here. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After all ideas are presented, participants may question others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each participant votes on each idea. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Delphi Technique <ul><li>Essentially the same as nominal group technique except the participants never meet. Follows 5 steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Assemble members </li></ul><ul><li>A survey instrument is used to collect initial input from members. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and analyse the results </li></ul><ul><li>A second survey is sent with a summary of the collective results. Members must respond. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps 2-5 are repeated until either a consensus or majority view is reached. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Arbitration <ul><li>Most appropriate when the members of the MDM represent opposing factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants agree that if mutually agreeable alternatives are not found, an outside arbitrator will get involved. </li></ul><ul><li>The arbitrator then selects the alternative he or she deems most appropriate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be a final single offer from each member submitted for arbitration </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Issue-Based Information System (IBIS) <ul><li>A structured argumentation method. </li></ul><ul><li>An IBIS is represented as a graph with nodes and links. </li></ul><ul><li>The IBIS begins with selection of a root issue node, then the various position nodes are linked to the root. </li></ul><ul><li>These position nodes are then evaluated based on the arguments attached to them. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Hermes Argumentation System http://www.mech.upatras.gr/~nikos/papers/hermes.pdf http:// www.ercim.org/publication/Ercim_News/enw32/karacapilidis.html
  27. 27. Nemawashi (widely used in Japan) <ul><li>A 5 step approach to the MDM process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or more members of the MDM are designated as coordinators. The coordinators then select remaining participants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinators construct a choice set and then experts rate the choices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinator selects a choice based on results in 2. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The alternative is circulated; the coordinator seeks consensus through persuasion and negotiation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If consensus is reached, coordinators circulate a document that each MDM member signs off on. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Virtual Workplace <ul><li>Many worldwide organizations are trading real estate for collaborative technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Work is becoming a thing you do rather than a place you go. </li></ul><ul><li>The biggest changes brought about by the virtual workplace may be cultural or sociological rather than technological. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Key Points <ul><li>Group, team, committee MDM’s </li></ul><ul><li>Wheel, chain, circle, network communications </li></ul><ul><li>Group problems </li></ul><ul><li>MDM support technologies </li></ul><ul><li>MDM classification by features or technology </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Groupware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messaging systems, collaborative authoring etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods of MDM co-ordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delphi, Nemawashi etc </li></ul></ul>