Human-Machine Boundary Employee Accounting Department 1.0 Create Weekly Payroll Record Employee Data File S1 Employee Tax Form Payroll Data File S2 2.1 Compute Gross Pay 2.3 Create Payroll Check 2.2 Compute Net Pay 3.2 Print Weekly Payroll Summary 3.1 Sort Payroll Records by Employee 4.2 Print Employee Tax Form 4.1 Calculate Payroll Deductions Employee Paycheck Payroll Deductions Employee Payroll Record Time Sheet Employee Record Gross Pay Data Net Pay Data Hours Worked Payroll Record Sorted Records Payroll Report
Output Design Issues Output Design Issue Description Purpose What is the intended use or purpose of the output? Primary User(s) Who will be the primary users of the output? Frequency How often will the output need to be generated? Delivery Point Where will the output be used? Human-Machine Boundaries What are the points in the system where the end user must (or can) interact with the system? Content What information must be delivered by the output? Media In what form will the output be delivered? Format How will the content of the output be displayed and formatted? Controls What controls are necessary to limit access to the output?
Output Design Guidelines Explanation Clear and meaningful titles Titles should clearly and specifically describe the content and use of the output. Relevant content Only the information necessary to use the output should be included and the presentation should be such that the output can be used without modification. Balanced Layout Adequate spacing and margining should be used to allow for a balanced or symmetrical presentation of the output. Clear Navigation The output should make navigation and location easy for the end user. This includes the use of indicators such as page numbers, section numbers, and end of section or sequence indicators. Use of highlighting and color Techniques for emphasizing a particular data value, exception, or section should be used to make it easier for the end user to focus on important items contained within the output. Such techniques include color or intensity differences, multiple size fonts, underlining, bolding or italicizing, and capitalization. Appropriate formatting of text elements Text should be presented using mixed upper and lower case with conventional punctuation. Paragraphs should be double-spaced or separated by a blank line when single-spaced. Abbreviation and acronyms should be commonly understood or clearly defined on first use. Words should not be hyphenated between lines. Appropriate formatting of tabular elements All columns and rows should be clearly and meaningfully labeled. All labels should be repeated when data extends beyond a single page or screen. Columns and rows should be sorted in a meaningful order. All numerical data should be right-justified with decimal points aligned and all text data should be left-justified using relatively short line lengths (30 to 40 characters).
Common Output Completion Controls Date and time stamp of output generation Data and time stamp for data or information contained in the output Time period covered by output contents Distribution or routing list Cover sheet with output version number and date Output header identification and description Clear pagination using “page __ of __” format Control totals where appropriate End of output trailer or indicator
Output Technology and Media Output Technology Output Media Printer – impact, page, laser, inkjet, thermal, plotter Paper, transparency Computer Monitor –CRT, LCD, Plasma Screen COM Microfilm, microfiche Voice Synthesis Voice synthesizer Robotic Mechanical robotic devices Video Screen, film, disk, CD-ROM, DVD
Incremental Data Backup Strategy Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Full backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup All files, data, and applications What has changed since Monday What has changed since Tuesday What has changed since Wednesday What has changed since Thursday
Generational Backup and Retention Strategy Friday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Storage Set A (week 1) Full backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Storage Set B (week 2) Full backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Storage Set C (week 3) Full backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Storage Set A (week 4) Full backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup Incremental backup … … … … … …