Categorization of Sample Types No Random Selection Random Selection No Specific Selection Criteria Applied Convenience Sample Simple Random Sample Specific Selection Criteria Applied Purposive Sample Complex Random Sample
Requirements Determination Information Gathering Approach Examples Interview - current system operations - data needs - proposed system requirements - process sequences Questionnaire - confirmation of facts - end-user demographics - general user attitudes Focus Group - conflicting system requirements - synergies across functional areas Observation - implementation of current processes - confirmation of interview data Archival Document Analysis - Org. policies & procedures - current system documentation - examples of data capture & usage External Research - industry best-practices - technological developments Joint Application Design - synergistic gathering of system requirements - identification of conflicting perspectives Iterative Prototyping - refined understanding of system configuration - operationalization of system look and feel
Well-Stated System Requirements Requirements Characteristic Description Testable and Verifiable Requirement must be stated to allow for independent verification that the system meets or exceeds the stated requirement. Justifiable Requirement should be necessary rather than simply desirable. Unambiguous Requirement should be stated such that multiple interpretations are excluded. Consistent Requirement should not be in conflict with any other stated requirement. Modifiable Requirement should allow for changes in the business environment. Hierarchically Traceable Requirement should contain a single system attribute and should be traceable back to a higher level requirement.
Testable vs. Nontestable Testable Requirement Nontestable Requirement Compute Price Extension by multiplying Quantity by Unit Price . Price Extension is the total cost for each item ordered. Reorder Quantity is computed by multiplying Average Daily Sales by 30. Reorder Quantity should be equal to a 30 day supply. Daily inventory levels must be accurate. Daily inventory levels must be accurate to within 2% for at least 99% of all raw material stores. The system must increase sales and market share. The system will increase annual sales by 14% and current market share by 6.5% within the first 12 months of operation.
Traditional Information Gathering Information Gathering Activity Explanation Direct Interview Consists of meeting with individuals or small groups to ask questions about their roles, responsibilities, and needs for the current and proposed systems. Questionnaires and Surveys Consists of submitting written, structured questions to selected individuals to gather information regarding attitudes, perceptions, or population characteristics. Direct Observation Consists of observing individuals or groups, processes, and events to determine the facts surrounding a particular process or the culture within a business environment. Archival Document Analysis Consists of reviewing recorded organizational documents such as current system documentation, mission statements, policies and procedures, and recorded memos and reports. Forms Analysis Consists of analyzing and cataloging the existing data capture forms within the organization to assist in determining the current sources and uses of data.
Direct Interview Advantages Disadvantages <ul><li>Analyst can motivate the respondent to answer freely and openly. </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent can more easily develop a sense of active contribution to the proposed system. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyst can probe for additional information and feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions can be reworded or restated for better clarity or to facilitate mutual understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyst can easily observe nonverbal communication channels such as body language and facial expressions. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The interview process is time-consuming and resource intensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Interview success is highly dependent on the communication skills of the analyst. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical location of the necessary respondents may make the interview process impractical. </li></ul>
Structured vs. Unstructured Variable Structured Interview Unstructured Interview Required preparation time High Low Required contact time with respondent Moderate High Analyst experience and training required High Low Evaluation of results and responses Easy Difficult Degree of spontaneity of responses Low High Depth and breadth of topic coverage Moderate High Reliability and precision of responses Moderate to High Low to Moderate Insight into respondent Low High Overall analyst control of dialogue High Low to Moderate Degree of flexibility of interaction Low High
Questionnaires Advantages Disadvantages <ul><li> Questionnaires can often be answered in less time. </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents can answer questions at their convenience. </li></ul><ul><li>Responses can be easily tabulated and analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires allow for respondents to maintain anonymity. </li></ul><ul><li> Response rate is often low. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires allow for less flexibility than other, more direct methods. </li></ul><ul><li>No guarantee exists that respondent will answer all questions posed. </li></ul><ul><li>No direct observation of the respondent can be conducted during questioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires are often time-consuming and difficult to prepare. </li></ul><ul><li>No opportunity to clarify points or expand on topics covered. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
Choosing the Appropriate Scale Scale Type General Application Nominal Classification without need for ranking Ordinal Classification with ranking but without need for equal intervals between ranks Interval Degree of presence of phenomena using equal intervals without need for absolute zero Ratio Degree of presence or absence of a phenomena
JAD Participants JAD Participant Description of Role Session Leader <ul><li>organizes and runs the actual JAD session </li></ul><ul><li>remains neutral on all issues and does not contribute ideas or opinions </li></ul><ul><li>sets the agenda for the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>concentrates on keeping to agenda, resolving conflicts, & generating dialogue from participants </li></ul>User <ul><li>represents end users’ perspective with regard to proposed system </li></ul>Manager <ul><li>represents management’s perspective with regard to proposed system </li></ul>Project Sponsor <ul><li>represents all parties responsible for funding and supporting the development effort </li></ul>Analyst <ul><li>analyst participation is limited to observation and listening to better understand the needs of the users and managers </li></ul>Scribe <ul><li> responsible for taking notes and recording important information and events relevant to the JAD proceedings </li></ul>IS Staff <ul><li>responsible for providing clarification on technical questions and issues </li></ul><ul><li>contribute ideas on technical feasibility of and limitations of proposed system components </li></ul>