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  1. 1. Problems vs. Opportunities Duke Haise Lovell Mattingly Swigert Liftoff of Apollo 13 “ Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Mattingly has a problem caused by Duke… … which creates an opportunity for Swigert… … which soon becomes a new problem.
  2. 2. Scientific Problem Solving Scientist Analyst Observe a phenomenon Recognize a variance Formulate a Hypothesis Conduct an experiment Investigate Propose a solution
  3. 3. Ishikawa Chart Observed Symptom or Variance Secondary Symptom Root Problem Symptom Category Symptom Category Symptom Category Symptom Category Possible Symptom Categories 4Ps : People, Place, Procedure, Policy 4Ms : Manpower, Machines, Methods, Materials 4Ss : Surroundings, Suppliers, Systems, Skills
  4. 4. The Problem Space OK Solutions Good Solutions Best Solution Great Solutions Search Space Problem Space
  5. 5. Open vs. Closed Systems Known, Defined, Predictable Known, Defined, Predictable Known, Defined, Predictable Known, Defined, Predictable Known, Defined, Predictable Subject to Unknown, Undefined, and Unpredictable Unknown, Undefined, Unpredictable Unknown, Undefined, Unpredictable Closed System Open System INPUTS PROCESSES OUTPUTS
  6. 6. Functional Decomposition Continually redefining the system under study into subsystems until reaching a point where no further value is gained from additional subsystem identification.
  7. 7. SDLC Preliminary Investigation Analysis Logical Design Physical Design Implementation Maintenance
  8. 8. Service Agreements
  9. 9. Typical PIECES Analysis Symptom P I E C E S Management reports are often not received on time.   X         Production line throughput is below expected standards. X           Product rework is high.     X   X   Inventory control reports are inaccurate.   X         Exceptions occur frequently and must be processed by hand.           X Production time is higher than industry average. X           Orders are often cancelled due to excessive delivery wait time. X           Required information to process an order not available on demand.   X         Organizational data redundancy is high.   X         Production lines are often down for repair or maintenance. X           Line personnel are often not aware of their production quota.   X         Data transferred from production system to sales system by hand.         X X Several incidents of system sabotage have been recorded.       X     Totals 4 5 1 1 2 2
  10. 10. Preliminary Investigation <ul><li>Key Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate problem scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate project feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate resource commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go/no go decision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Deliverables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary feasibility report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General problem statement </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Analysis <ul><li>Key Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create logical models of current system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refine problem statement via detailed symptom analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine requirements for new system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Deliverables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DFD of current system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERD of current system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal problem statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal requirements definition </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Logical Design <ul><li>Key Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise current system logical models to reflect proposed system changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validate logical model of proposed system against requirements determination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Deliverables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DFD of proposed system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERD of proposed system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final performance specifications </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Physical Design <ul><li>Key Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine hardware specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine software specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct feasibility analysis and cost justification for new system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate implementation schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design data structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare training guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare preliminary testing procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Deliverables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed hardware specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed software specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final feasibility report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical data structures and data dictionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation schedule </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Implementation <ul><li>Key Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine location requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install the new system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create test data and conduct initial system tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train all end users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify all end user and system documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Deliverables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Final performance test metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully trained end user community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully installed system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully converted data files </li></ul></ul>