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Usenet wiki pocketbinaries_com_index_php_title_what_is_usene Usenet wiki pocketbinaries_com_index_php_title_what_is_usene Presentation Transcript

  • Log in Page Discussion Read View source View history Go Search What is Usenet? Contents [hide] Navigation 1 Background 2 Eternal September Main page 3 ISPs, newsreaders and binary content Community portal 4 Legal issues affecting the Usenet Current events 5 Websites and books on Usenet Recent changes 6 External links Random page Help Background Toolbox What is Usenet? It is an abridgement of the Internet parlance "users network", a global network of discussion groups where millions of people take part in reading and posting messages on more than What links here 100,000 available newsgroups. It was designed as a utility to swap text messages between computers. As Related changes a precursor to modern Internet forums, Usenet is a hybrid of email and web forums. Articles (or posts) are Special pages threaded and messages are exchanged through news feeds and accessed using a news reader client. Printable version Permanent link Newsgroups can be compared to bulletin board systems (BBS). However, BBSs of the 1980s and 1990s are limited to a specific geographic location with a dedicated server. On the other hand, Usenet runs over a decentralized worldwide network of servers. Sponsored links In 1979, two students from Duke University in North Carolina, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis, came up with an Usenet electronic link between their university and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill utilizing shell Adult SEO scripts written by Steve Bollovin, a graduate student from UNC. Expensive electronic mail and file transferopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  • procedures were expensive during that time and this circumstance necessitated the need for a cheaper method to transmit data. These three students used the Unix to Unix Copy Protocol (UUCP) and in 1980, Usenet was connected to ARPANET through the facilities at the University of California at Berkeley. During the infancy of the Usenet, subscribers were able to read messages only. It was not until 1981 when users were able to post messages. Since UUCP proved to be more practical, the number of UUCP hosts climbed up to about 1,000 in 1984. The more efficient NNTP or Network News Transfer Protocol was introduced in 1985 in order to distribute articles over TCP/IP, a protocol that is still in use today. Usenet utilizes a type of flooding algorithm that where articles are multiplied and distributed throughout a network of participating servers. When an article (message) is posted, it goes to its local server, and is then forwarded to all servers in the network that subscribe to the newsgroup where the article was posted. The article then becomes available on demand for users who are subscribed to that particular newsgroup. The Usenet is divided into nine hierarchies which came into being when the number of newsgroups multiplied in the 1990s and guidelines to properly administer Usenet became a necessity. The major set of newsgroups is known as the Big Eight and they are the following: 1. comp - computer science discussions, 2. humanities - arts, literature, philosophy discussions, 3. misc - miscellaneous topics, 4. news - news discussions, 5. rec - entertainment, recreation, music, movies discussion, 6. sci - science subjects, 7. soc - sociological topics, 8. talk - controversial discussion on religion, politics Not belonging to the Big Eight is the biggest and most well-known, the alt.* hierarchy. It is considered as less organized since it houses numerous binary content or binaries, which encompass files as varied as computer software, images, audio, videos and games. Majority of these binary files are images and videos and many of them are adult material. Eternal September The proliferation of Usenet and the Internet in general enabled millions of people access to the Internet without a guide or proper background information about navigation and participation. Many Usenet traditionalists decried the influx of users who are not educated on standards of conduct or netiquette. Eternal September was coined to capture the notion that an endless wave of new users or newbiesopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  • degraded the standards of behavior and discourse on the Internet and Usenet in particular. The phrase was coined after large numbers of freshmen college students who study the Usenet for the first time in September in order to acquaint themselves of the conventions of Usenet. ISPs, newsreaders and binary content Most newsgroups are hosted on servers connected to the Internet, but they can also be hosted on servers not part of this network. News servers are hosted and managed by Internet service providers and some Internet websites. Some ISPs that cannot run or prefer not to administer news servers consign Usenet administration to another newsgroup service provider (NSP) and make this service appear as though it is run by the ISP itself. Other ISPs, on the other hand, offer their subscribers Usenet accounts from another NSP. A newsreader or client is a specialized standalone program that reads feeds and browses newsgroup articles. Integrated readers also exist such as those packaged with email clients (Microsoft Outlook Express) and web browsers (Opera). Usenet aficionados choose standalone newsreaders over integrated clients because the latter tend to bear more errors. Web based Usenet became popular when the World Wide Web exploded in the 1990s. Most newsgroups are not moderated. Articles posted by readers are not screened for editorial content and are instantly propagated over participating networks. Such freedom paved the way for the immense popularity of Usenet. Still, a number of newsgroups are moderated where a user needs to email a moderator first who then reviews and approves messages according to the groups rules before flooding them to participating networks. In the early days, messages on Usenet were encoded utilizing 7-bit ASCII values. The 8-bit system was then introduced and this paved the way for the distribution of binary content. These binary files attached to articles are often split into sections that need reassembly by a client. These are archived into RAR files including parity files that are used to rebuild absent data. Such rebuilding of files is necessary because not every component reaches a server. Legal issues affecting the Usenetopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  • Despite being one of the pioneering computing networks, the Usenet has not really penetrated the mainstream Internet audience. Since it was confined to a small percentage of the overall Internet population, investments were too few in the 1990s compared with the increasingly popular World Wide Web. A decade later, ISPs severed subscription to the Usenet because of the decreasing number of actual readers as a result of intense competition posed by blogs and forums, with an increasing number of Usenet traffic devoted to file-sharing and hijacked by spam. The problem on piracy and pornography became a contentious issue for politicians as they have believed the Usenet has become a hotbed for the illegal distribution of music, movies and software, as well as child pornography. A prominent case against child pornography was instituted by New York State Attorney Andrew Cuomo. This case scared off many ISPs, including big companies such as Sprint, Verizon and Time Warner, but critics stated that these players only fed into the issue not acceding to moral standards but to economic considerations of running Usenet servers. Websites and books on Usenet Due to the seemingly esoteric nature of Usenet, many websites until today have been maintained to guide users in participating in newsgroups. In order to demystify this area of the Internet, websites such as harleyhahn.com devote a full section of the website to understanding and accessing the Usenet. The website covers a comprehensive treatment on newsgroups with a main page entitled "What is Usenet?". In the late 1990s, books on Usenet were published with well-known titles such as The Complete Idiots Guide to Usenet Newsgroups (1995). Despite the widespread notion that Usenet participation is declining, a few books were published as late as August 2011 (Newsgroups) and September 2011 (Usenet Clients). External links Free Usenet This page w as last modified on 24 January 2012, at 15:29. This page has been accessed 356 times.open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  • Privacy policy About usenet-w iki.pocketbinaries.com Disclaimersopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com