China Video Games Market & Marketing - Philip Driver
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China Video Games Market & Marketing - Philip Driver

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Overview of the Chinese video games market and marketing data.

Overview of the Chinese video games market and marketing data.

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China Video Games Market & Marketing - Philip Driver China Video Games Market & Marketing - Philip Driver Presentation Transcript

  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation BRIC Video Games Markets Market Data & Demographics Part 3- China Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver China • Capital: Beijing • Currency: Renminbi ¥ (CNY) • Language: Mandarin • Population: 1.351 Billion (2012) • GDP: $13.374 trillion USD (2012) The Chinese video games market in 2012 was estimated to be worth $9.7 billion an increase of over 35% from the previous year. The vast majority of this ($9.1 billion) being from online games with rest mainly made up from the mobile market which, although rapidly expanding has yet to truly explode. In a report by Techweb it was estimated that the total revenue of China would top $21 billion by 2017 presuming that growth continued at approx. 12%. To put this in perspective in 2011 Americans spent nearly $25 billion on video games, including hardware. So while these number are large the market for video games unlike the US is still in its infancy, it must also be noted that many companies in China do not report earnings. China is already the worlds largest PC digital games market with revenue of $6bn in 2011.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Chinese Economy • According to McKinsey in 2012, Online revenue in China was estimated to be $190bn$210bn, by comparison the US market was worth $220bn-$230bn • China’s market had compound annual growth of 120 per cent between 2003 and 2011, compared with 17 per cent growth for the US. • McKinsey forecasts that China’s market could reach $420bn-$650bn by 2020. Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China Internet Usage • China will have double the internet users of the US and Japan by 2015 • Total number of current internet users is estimated at 513M. • In 2000 the total number of internet users was 22M Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Philip Driver Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Internet popularizing rate for population of all ages in 2007-2010 Population Pyramid Target Demographic 0-14 Years: 17.2% (male 124,773,577/female 107,286,198) 15-24 years: 15.4% (male 109,922,192/female 98,325,568) Age structure of internet users during Dec. 2010 and Dec. 2011 Chinese Population Data
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Global Internet Usage Rank Country or Region Population, Internet Users Internet Users Penetration Users 2012 Est Year 2000 Latest Data (% Population) % World 1,343,239,923 22,500,000 538,000,000 40.10% 22.40% 1 China 2 United States 313,847,465 95,354,000 245,203,319 78.10% 10.20% 3 India 1,205,073,612 5,000,000 137,000,000 11.40% 5.70% 4 Japan 127,368,088 47,080,000 101,228,736 79.50% 4.20% 5 Brazil 193,946,886 5,000,000 88,494,756 45.60% 3.70% 6 Russia 142,517,670 3,100,000 67,982,547 47.70% 2.80% 7 Germany 81,305,856 24,000,000 67,483,860 83.00% 2.80% 8 Indonesia 248,645,008 2,000,000 55,000,000 22.10% 2.30% 9 United Kingdom 63,047,162 15,400,000 52,731,209 83.60% 2.20% 10 France 65,630,692 8,500,000 52,228,905 79.60% 2.20% 11 Nigeria 170,123,740 200,000 48,366,179 28.40% 2.00% 12 Mexico 114,975,406 2,712,400 42,000,000 36.50% 1.70% 13 Iran 78,868,711 250,000 42,000,000 53.30% 1.70% 14 Korea 48,860,500 19,040,000 40,329,660 82.50% 1.70% 15 Turkey 79,749,461 2,000,000 36,455,000 45.70% 1.50% 16 Italy 61,261,254 13,200,000 35,800,000 58.40% 1.50% 17 Philippines 103,775,002 2,000,000 33,600,000 32.40% 1.40% 18 Spain 47,042,984 5,387,800 31,606,233 67.20% 1.30% 19 Vietnam 91,519,289 200,000 31,034,900 33.90% 1.30% 20 Egypt 83,688,164 450,000 29,809,724 35.60% 1.20% TOP 20 Countries 4,664,486,873 273,374,200 1,776,355,028 38.10% 73.80% Rest of the World 2,353,360,049 87,611,292 629,163,348 26.70% 26.20% Total World Users 7,017,846,922 360,985,492 2,405,518,376 34.30% 100.00% Languages spoken by internet users
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Internet Penetration by Region Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Regional Variations Unsurprisingly wealth and disposable income levels are higher in the more developed western and coastal areas of China Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China Games Landscape • Publishers with a local office (non Chinese) • Disney Interactive Studios • Electronic Arts • Ubisoft • NCSoft • Konami • Digital Retail Landscape Given the until recent lack of consoles and high rates of piracy its little wonder that the bulk of growth and revenue to date has come from digital and specifically MMOs, free-to play titles and social games. MMO’s are still king with 67% of all revenue coming from this category. The Market itself is dominated by local and regional players such as Tencent and NetEase but many more are coming through thanks to the markets size, growth and robustness. Free-to-play MMO company Suzhou Snail Electronics Co Ltd (also known as Snail Game), which employs over 3,000 people, recently organised investment with four banks for a loan on $100M for one game alone. Mobile is still a small but rapidly expanding segment and should be expected to take significant market share over the next few years. China is now the world's largest online gaming market, contributing one-third to the global revenue in this sector in 2009, or 56% of the Asia Pacific total Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Top Chinese Game Companies In Q1 of 2013 the six largest game companies in China grossed over $2 billion or RMB 12.8 billion. • Tencent • • Netease • • Another major developer of MMORPG’s including the very popular Maple Story Shand are now branching out into mobile development. Perfect World • • Changyou operates and develops several online game mainly MMO’s including Blade Wars, Dragon Oath and Shadowbane. Shanda • • NetEase are another internet company that operate popular search engine and web portals as well as developing the game Westward Journey Changyou • • Tencent are a true internet giant, with a market capitalization of over $100 billion they have interests in mass media, entertainment, Internet and mobile services, and online advertising. Their games include QQ Speed and World of West. They also publish League of Legends in China. MMORPG specialist Perfect World who also make a game of the same name operate DOTA 2 in china and also own the right to Atari. Giant • MMO developer Giant Interactive Group runs the popular ZT Online series. Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Getting an accurate number of “Gamers” for China is difficult given the high levels of piracy and no retail tracking however the number of Online “Gamers” is tracked by companies and the Chinese Government. Estimates for total online gamers is between 215M and 324M PC Cafes were the primary location for online gamers to play but as the number of home internet connections has grown this has now dropped to less than 17%.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Pro’s and Cons To Doing Business in China Pros: • Huge addressable market • Gamer culture • Social players who recommend and share games. • Well established online game market. • Mobile market set to explode. • High ARPU for PvP games • Free to Play and VIP access monetization popular. • Chinese gamers like to buy exclusive in game items and brag about them in a manner similar to luxury goods. • Gifting highly popular. • PC Café Culture still strong but declining. • Esports increasingly popular. Cons: • Culture markedly different to West. • Regional location of players alters demographic and Psychographic factors drastically. • IM preferred to email for player support. • Users unwilling to spend upfront on games. • High levels of physical good piracy and IP fraud. • Highly competent localization of non Chinese titles needed with different monetization models/tactics. • Highly regulated with several licenses needed to operate online games. • Confusing number of mobile and social platforms fracture market.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Top 20 Games in China* Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Trend ↑2 ↓2 ↑1 ↓1 ↑2 ↓1 ↑2 ↓3 Name of the Game League of Legends Cross Fire DNF QQ Speed QQ Dancer Viral Dream Three Ares fighting New Westward Journey 2 NBA2KOL Dota2 World of Warcraft Fantasy Westward Journey 2 League of experience serving QQ Dancer experience serving Counter-Strike Online Asked Dragon in the day Audition World of Tanks Game Category Recreational Athletics Shooting Role-playing Sports Racing Dance Shooting Recreational Athletics Role-playing Round Games Sports Racing Recreational Athletics Role-playing Round Games Recreational Athletics Dance Shooting Role-playing Role-playing Music and Dance Shooting * Rankings based on October 2013 internet cafe user data Several well known Western games now regularly feature in the top 20.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver China: Regional Variations This image is from the QQ website and shows the dispersal of QQ games across China at any given time. QQ Game is a casual games client, offering multi-player online games. 196 board, card and other social games are available.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Regional Variations Two images from a research paper on Chinese gaming regional diversity. The first shows the distribution of 13 different styles of the game Mahjong. Note that in this particular instance players have very distinct tastes for preferred game style as there is a cultural influence from their location. The second are more generic yet still popular games but without cultural nuances and so show a balanced dispersal. Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation East vs. West Philip Driver Different layouts, features and incentives are often used for the Chinese Market. DOTA 2 EU DOTA 2 China
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation East vs. West Artwork styles also often show a marked difference between Chinese and other territories. League of Legends EU League of Legends China Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Video Games are listed as the No1# pastime for Chinese internet users. Over 60% of the Chinese Internet population play games Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Internet Users By Category Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Who are Chinese Gamers? 67% of Chinese Gamers play 7+ hours a week
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Web Games Market Share Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Mobile Games Development Market Share Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Mobile Games The China Internet Network Information Centre estimates that 464 million citizens access the net via smartphones or other wireless devices. It is estimated that there are over 1.2 billion mobile phones in China. Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Mobile Games Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Mobile Games Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver China: Mobile Games Issues with distribution still persist but new billing options are making the market easier to monetize.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Mobile Games Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver China: Mobile Games Beijing-based mobile game developer and publisher CocoaChina/Chukong announced recently that their flagship game Fishing Joy is now making $6.28 million per month, mostly from China. Chukong have also raised $83M in investment which shows the confidence in the Chinese mobile market.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Local Governing Bodies and Organisations • ChinaJoy – The Largest digital entertainment expo in China held annually in Shanghai. The show is held over 5 days and attracted over 206,000 visitors in 2013. • • Ministry of Information Industry – Created in the 90’s the agencies is tasked with the regulation of the telecommunications and software industry. • • http://www.gov.cn/english/2005-10/02/content_74175.htm General Administration of Press and Publication Responsible for monitoring and regulating publication of print based media, electronic media, and audio-visual products (including online games). This is the body that with others set out to provide a solution to the perceived threat of increasing game addition and fatigue. • • http://en.chinajoy.net/ http://www.gapp.gov.cn/ The China Software Industry Association (CSIA) is the major representative and one of the most active associations in the China Software industry. Its goal is to promote the development of software industry in China and provide a hub with overseas markets. • http://www.csia.org.cn/htm/index.html Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Traditional Holidays in China Date English name Local name Remarks January 1 New Year 元旦 1st day of 1st lunar month Spring Festival (Chinese New Year) 春节 Based on Chinese calendar 15th day of 1st lunar month Lantern Festival 元宵节 Based on Chinese calendar 2nd day of 2nd lunar month Zhonghe Festival (Dragon Raising 中和节 its Head) Based on Chinese calendar March 8 International Women's Day 国际妇女节 March 12 Arbor Day 植树节 Also known as National Tree Planting Day (全民义务植树日) 5th Solar Term (usually April 4–6) Qingming Festival (Chinese Memorial Day) 清明节 Based on the Jieqi Qingming. May 1 Labour Day 劳动节 International Workers' Day May 4 Youth Day 青年节 Commemorating the May Fourth Movement June 1 Children's Day 六一儿童节 5th day of 5th lunar month Dragon Boat Festival (Duanwujie) 端午节 July 1 CPC Founding Day 建党节 Formation of 1st National Congress on July 1921 July 11 China National Maritime Day 中国航海日 The anniversary of Zheng He's first voyage August 1 Army Day 建军节 Nanchang Uprising (南昌起义) on August 1, 1927 7th day of 7th lunar month Double Seven Festival 七夕 The Chinese Valentine's Day, based on Chinese calendar 15th day of 7th lunar month Spirit Festival (Ghost Festival) 中元节 Based on Chinese calendar 15th day of 8th lunar month Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival) 中秋节 Based on Chinese calendar October 1 National Day 国庆节 Founding of PRC on October 1, 1949 9th day of 9th lunar month Chongyang Festival 重阳节 Based on Chinese calendar. Based on Chinese calendar It is important to note that there are many other regional festivals that are observed throughout China. There is also the phenomenon of “Singles Day” a retail holiday invented by Alibaba similar in scale to Black Friday in the US. Held on Nov 11th in 2013 this accounted for $5 billion in ecommerce revenues.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Chinese Government and Censorship Its difficult not to mention the government when talking about the Chinese Video Games industry and this is not the place for debate however there are some areas of consideration. Similar to other countries games are subject to censorship or bans should they be considered to have violated any of the following. • Violating basic principles of the Constitution • Threatening national unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity • Divulging state secrets • Threatening state security • Damaging the nation's glory • Disturbing social order • Infringing on others' legitimate rights In addition to banning games completely, many games have had their content screened to remove certain imagery deemed offensive or unfavourable. Common examples include skeletons or skulls being either fleshed out or removed entirely. It should also be noted that the Chinese government is becoming increasingly concerned about Game addiction and limiting play times of online gamers. State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television In 2004 the SARFT instating a blanket ban on computer game related commercials in the state-run media. Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Chinese Gamer Spending Habits Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Chinese Payment Methods The total number of credit cards in China is around 268 million however they are rarely used for online transactions. Chinese Online Payment Methods • Alipay • Tenpay • Online Bank Transfer • 99Bill • China PnR • YeePay • Huanxun IPS
  • GAMES MARKETER Philip Driver Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Web Portals and Social Media In China • The Chinese are exceptionally heavy users of social networks, chat software and web video. • Facebook and Twitter do not rank highly. • Twitter is blocked and very few users use Facebook (500,000 although this is still more than some eastern European countries). Top 10 Websites (Enfodesk Oct 2013) Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name Tencent Baidu Taobao QQ space Sohu Lynx Hao123 360 security site navigation Baidu Post Bar Youku Classification Integrated portal Search Engine Online Shopping Social networking sites Integrated portal Online Shopping Site Navigation Site Navigation Community Forum Network Video
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Main Media & Portal Owners News Site Reach Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Search Engine Market Share Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Online Marketing Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Online Marketing Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Search Engine Marketing : Baidu Baidu has an 80% Market share of the Chinese search engine market which gives them around 400M regular users. If you are going to be running online marketing in China then they will be at the core of your strategy. Through their Phoenix Nest System users can run campaigns across: • • • Baidu paid search (PPC) Baidu Brand Zone Baidu Content Network & Targetisement (display advertising network) Differences in Search Engine Users China vs. US
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Typical Baidu Search Pages In the second quarter of 2013, Baidu PPC accounted for (77%) of the total Chinese marketplace. Paid Ad Areas Content from Baidu’s other properties, such as Baidu Zhido, is always displayed below paid search results but above organic search results. Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Philip Driver Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Eye Tracking Comparison China 30 - 60 Seconds China: •Scan entire results page •Prefer to click as opposed to type vs. U.S.A. 10 Seconds
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Baidu Brand Zone The Brand Zone acts like a kind of search results page takeover. Baidu says that the Brand Zone, which is a paid for advertisement “further elevate brand awareness and brand interaction… integrat[ing] text descriptions, images and video.” The Ad gives several different content spaces and has a much higher CTR but requires an approval process and sponsorship fee.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Baidu Content Network & Targetisement Baidu has an extensive advertising network covering over 600,000 websites. Targeting can be placed, contextual or behavioral and in the formats that anyone familiar with Google’s network will be familiar with. Adverts can also be placed on gaming networks and displayed on loading screens or video pre-rolls.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Baidu Considerations Accounts & Practices • • • • • To work with Baidu you have to open an account and follow their very strict guidelines, the approval process takes at least 2 weeks. All site additions must be approved by Baidu, English language sites are allowed but typically see 85% dropout rates. Baidu is a pre-paid system and so SMB accounts must have a balance before advertising. There are two account types: • SMB – Small Medium Business • VIP – For larger clients, gives an account manager and credit terms. Baidu make numerous changes to their search which can drastically effect SEO and other campaigns if not periodically optimised Legislation & Regulation • • Baidu has strict guidelines and also fully complies with government regulations so it is important to understand the legal implications of anything you might do. Topics Considered off limits or of risk are: • Politics. • News. In that news is government regulated. • FX Trading or finance – requires approvals. This may include game currencies. • Auto redirects. Even if legitimate can result in bans. • Adult content including any form of nudity. • Any other topics or imagery that could be considered in bad taste or corrupting.
  • GAMES MARKETER Philip Driver Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Baidu Product Set Mobile Mobile is an increasingly important aspect of how Chinese people search and surf the internet. CNNIC data suggests that 79% of users access via smartphones and mobile devices. Baidu themselves now manufacture smartphones and have developed Android and iOS Apps Currently mobile accounts for 50% of all searches on Baidu
  • GAMES MARKETER Philip Driver Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Tencent QQ IM Instant Messaging is China’s most popular activity online with 80% of the online population using it to communicate. There are over 700M active users and a peak concurrent user base of 145M. QQ is now available on multiple platforms including PC, Mac, iOS & Android. Advertising and virtual currencies are supported.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation China: Advertising Behaviours Unlike the West email is not a major marketing area in China with many more people engaging via chat/mobile networks Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver China: Video Games Market Conclusions • The Chinese Video Games market is huge and could be worth over $20 Billion by 2017 • The country itself is equally vast and regions should be considered as individual country size markets similar to the EU. • Free to play and VIP access are the only models that consistently appeal to Chinese gamers and make significant revenue. Games that introduce PvP elements often see higher ARPU’s. • MMO’s currently hold around 67% of the market but web and social games becoming increasingly popular. • The vast majority on the online population consider themselves Gamers. • Chinese gamers are highly sociable online and heavy users of IM, Social Networks and Blogs. However these are local providers with a relatively small % using facebook and Twitter being blocked. • Baidu is the dominant search engine and advertising platform. Tencent is the dominant Social and Chat provider. • Mobile game development has been a challenge but is now set to see rapid growth and investment over the next few years. • Doing business in China can be difficult not only for numerous cultural differences but also heavy government regulation.
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation Philip Driver Game Over About the Author: Philip Driver is a marketing, ecommerce and growth expert specialising in the field of video games. He also writes the blog www.gamesmarketer.com A games industry veteran of nearly ten years he lives in Dublin and is currently trying not to really suck at League of Legends….progress is slow. You can follow him on Twitter http://twitter.com/PobiWan Linkedin http://www.linkedin.com/in/philipdriver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation References • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Google http://www.internetworldstats.com/ Wikipedia League of Legends DOTA 2 Baidu CNIC - China Internet Network Information Center – http://www.cnnic.net.cn/ iResearch – http://www.iresearchchina.com/views/5279.html Enfodesk - http://www.enfodesk.com/ TechWeb – http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=en&ie=UTF8&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&sl=zhCN&tl=en&twu=1&u=http://www.techweb.com.cn/data/2013-01-08/1268467.shtml&usg=ALkJrhgJzrFWxJ8CCqEWaSc0Ck16hI3v_g TechCrunch – http://techcrunch.com/2013/04/05/china-app-makers/ Gamesindustrybiz – http://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2013-10-10-gaming-more-pervasive-in-china-than-us-report – http://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2013-07-30-china-the-gaming-superpower-continues-to-march-west MobiThinking – http://mobithinking.com/blog/china-top-mobile-market Flurry – http://blog.flurry.com/bid/99327/The-China-Report-Device-and-App-Trends-in-the-1-Mobile-Market Incitez – Baidu Advertising Guide Econsultancy – Baidu Search Best Practice – The 'missing manual' of search marketing in China: part one – China: a special report on digital marketing and e-commerce – China: Digital Market Landscape Report – State of Digital Marketing in Asia Games and Culture: Using Online-gaming Data to Cluster Chinese Regional Cultures – http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.0621 Philip Driver
  • GAMES MARKETER Video Games Marketing, Promotion and Monetisation References (continued) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Niko – Video gaming in China and South East Asia Gamasutra – http://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/202990/Net_cafes_falling_out_of_favor_among_Chinese_players.php – http://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/184803/Four_mustread_predictions_about_the_Chinese_mobile_game_market_in_2013.php – http://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/176023/5_things_every_mobile_game_developer_should_know_about_Chinese_players.php – http://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/202682/Funding_push_for_Chinese_mobile_publisher_Chukong_reaches_83M.php CIA world Factbook http://www.chinainternetwatch.com/ Financial Times – http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/84b000d8-4ac2-11e3-ac3d-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2lNhztanD The Economist – http://www.economist.com/node/21553046?zid=306&ah=1b164dbd43b0cb27ba0d4c3b12a5e227 BCG Perspectives – https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/digital_economy_globalization_china_digital_3_0_online_empire/ Games In Asia – http://www.gamesinasia.com/ – http://www.gamesinasia.com/chinas-ten-most-popular-pc-games-june-2013/ – http://www.gamesinasia.com/china-top-6-gaming-companies-revenues-q1-2013/ – http://www.gamesinasia.com/chinas-teen-gamers-revealed-indepth-demographics-deepest-desires-exclusive-infographic/ MCV – http://www.mcvuk.com/static/images/assets/2823/5253_Around%20the%20World%20with%20MCV.pdf The Gamer is always right – White Paper – www.superdataresearch.com 6Waves – http://www.slideshare.net/SocialityRocks/global-domination Red Atoms – http://www.slideshare.net/sprie-stanford/david-liu-of-redatoms-mobile-gaming-in-china?from_search=1 GDC – http://www.slideshare.net/heavenbs/differences-between-chinawestmobile-game-f – http://www.slideshare.net/HamletAu/gdc-henry-fong-19-mar20131?from_search=1 We are Social – http://www.slideshare.net/wearesocialsg/we-are-socials-guide-to-social-digital-and-mobile-in-china-dec-2011-10474962 Philip Driver