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Lead users motivation to contribute to innovation workshops

Lead users motivation to contribute to innovation workshops

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  • 1. Tracking Motivation of Lead Users and Non-Lead Users in Workshops on Sustainability Innovations? Stefan Engeser, Susanne Steiner & Hugo M. Kehr Technische Universität München European Marketing Academy Conference 2010 - Track 4: Innovation and New Product Development - p Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 1
  • 2. Sustainable Innovations We are part of a joint research project: Fostering sustainable consumption by integrating users into sustainability innovations y www.nanu-projekt.de Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 2
  • 3. Sustainable Innovations passive houses User integration bioplastics in sustainability innovations smart mobility t bilit cross-cutting issues: motivation Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 3
  • 4. User Integration Innovation high Toolkits workshops p h tegration n Communities Idea Competitions Lev of Int Weblog Focus groups Dialogue vel Service p phone low Inquiries Online Feedback low l high Level of Interaction Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 4
  • 5. Motivation In user integration motivational issues become apparent: (1) Why do people participate in user integration without (adequate) payment? (2) Are users still motivated during innovation processes? Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 5
  • 6. Lead-userness Lead userness Lead users are found a highly innovative source of new product development (e.g., Hippel, 1986; Lüthje et al., 2005; Morrison, et al., 2004, Schreier & Prügl, 2008) Lead Users: (1) Are ahead of the market trend (2) Have high level of expertise (3) Expect benefits of innovation Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 6
  • 7. Research Aims (1) Identify incentives to participate in user integration workshops on sustainability innovations (2) Tracking motivation during innovation workshops (3) Testing the hypotheses that lead users see more incentives and showing higher motivation during the workshop Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 7
  • 8. Method – Participants - Twelve workshops with a total of - 165 participants in - three marketplaces (passive houses, bioplastics, smart mobility). mobilit ) - Six workshops consisted of lead users only, and six of non lead non-lead users only only. - M = 40.1 years (SD = 16.7). - 44 % of the participants were women. p p Lead user selected according to: - Dissatisfaction with existing products - Expected benefits of innovations - Knowledge Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 8
  • 9. Method – Procedure Open Innovation Incentive Friday 5 pm Questionnaire (OIIQ) Phase 1: Introduction Motivational indicators: Phase 2: Generation of ideas Flow, Mood, 3 components of motivation Phase 3: Selection of ideas Motivational indicators: Phase 4: Elaboration of ideas Flow, Mood, 3 components of Saturday 5 pm motivation ( (Commitment, Quality of ideas…) , y ) Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 9
  • 10. Method – Open Innovation Incentive Questionnaire Incentives Items: I am taking part … gp Altruism … to help the company to develop new services and products Identification Id tifi ti … id tif myself with the company identify lf ith th Discontent … angry about the current offers. Tangible Rewards … getting compensation. compensation Career … it looks good for my CV Incentives are based on extensive literature research; e.g.,: Simon et al. (1998), Wu et al. (2007), Hertel et al. (2003). Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 10
  • 11. Method – Open Innovation Incentive Questionnaire Incentives Items: I am taking part … gp Altruism … to help the company to develop new services and products Identification Id tifi ti … id tif myself with the company identify lf ith th Discontent … angry about the current offers. Tangible Rewards … getting compensation. compensation Career … it looks good for my CV Achievement … want to extend my knowledge Power … want to impress others Affiliation … like to be with other people Ability … because I am a creative person Additional incentives are based on motivational psychology; cf. Heckhausen & Heckhausen 2008 Heckhausen, 2008. Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 11
  • 12. Method – Flow Experience Flow Experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975): - High concentration - Activity guided by an inner logic - Change in the experience of time - Merging of the self and the activity / loss of self-consciousness Flow-Short-Scale (10 Items; e g Engeser & Rheinberg, 2008) e.g., Rheinberg “I am totally absorbed in what I am doing” “I feel that I have everything under control” y g “I am completely lost in thought” Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 12
  • 13. Method – Mood Mood Adjective Checklist (UWIST; Matthews et al 1990) - al., Energetization : How do you feel in the moment … active dynamic shiftless (recoded) inactive ( i ti (recoded) d d) … Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 13
  • 14. Method – 3 Components of Motivation 3 Components of Motivation (Kehr 2004): (Kehr, affective preferences “I find participating in the workshop fun” cognitive preferences “It is important for me to come up with good results” perceived abilities “I have the abilities needed to solve the I problems in the workshop” Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 14
  • 15. Results – Incentives Achievement Identification Affiliation Altruism Ability Tangible Rewards g Discontent Power 1 2 3 4 5 6 Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 15
  • 16. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Lead User Non-Lead User M M Achievement 5.39 4.75 Identification 5.27 4.65 Affiliation 5.15 4.47 Altruism Alt i 5.23 5 23 4.39 4 39 Ability 4.82 3.62 Tangible Rewards 3.6 3.34 Discontent 3.81 2.69 Power 3.57 2.67 Career 3.22 2.37 Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 16
  • 17. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Lead User Non-Lead User M M r d Achievement 5.39 4.75 .39** 0.85 Identification 5.27 4.65 .29** 0.59 Affiliation 5.15 4.47 .29** 0.59 Altruism Alt i 5.23 5 23 4.39 4 39 .37** 37** 0.78 0 78 Ability 4.82 3.62 .50** 1.15 + Tangible Rewards 3.6 3.34 .13 0.26 Discontent 3.81 2.69 .36** 0.77 Power 3.57 2.67 .38** 0.82 Career 3.22 2.37 .26** 0.53 + p < .10, * p < .05, ** p < .01 Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 17
  • 18. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Achieve- Identi- Affili- Altruism Ability Dis- Power Career ment fication ation content β β β β β β β β Lead-Userness a .39** Age -.10 Gender .05 i house b Passive h P .03 03 Mobility c .07 Lead-Userness x ead Use ess -.10 Passive house Lead-Userness x .03 Mobility a = lead user vs non-lead user vs. * p < .05, ** p < .01 , b = dummy variable: passive houses vs. others c = dummy variable: with mobility vs. others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 18
  • 19. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Achieve- Identi- Affili- Altruism Ability Dis- Power Career ment fication ation content β β β β β β β β Lead-Userness a .39** .29** .29** .37** .49** .37** .38** .28** Age -.10 .09 -.11 -.08 -.16 -.05 -.40** -.45** Gender .05 .04 .09 .05 .00 .06 .02 .04 i house b Passive h P .03 03 -.03 03 .16 16 -.18 18 .04 04 -.20* 20* -.05 05 .06 06 Mobility c .07 .09 .05 .38** .24* .06 .35** -.11 Lead-Userness x ead Use ess -.10 -.03 -.08 .06 -.07 .01 .05 .05 Passive house Lead-Userness x .03 -.09 .17* .03 -.09 -.07 .13 -.09 Mobility a = lead user vs non-lead user vs. * p < .05, ** p < .01 , b = dummy variable: passive houses vs. others c = dummy variable: with mobility vs. others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 19
  • 20. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Affiliation 6 5 4 3 Lead User Non-Lead User Mobility Others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 20
  • 21. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness (1) Identification with the company/product and wanting to help finding new innovations (altruism) are strong incentives. (2) Additionally, learning something new / accomplish something difficult (achievement) and being with others is important too. (3) Lead users see higher incentives to participate in the workshops. (4) We found small differences between the marketplaces. k t l Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 21
  • 22. Results – Motivational Indicators Energetiz- g Energetiz- g Flow 1 Flow 2 ation 1 ation 2 Lead-Userness a .04 .25* .12 .25* Achievement A hi t .11 11 .07 07 .10 10 .15 15 Identification .18* .26* .18* .26* Affiliation .10 -.05 .18* .06 Altruism .22* .23* .29* .35* Ability .13 .00 .18* .12 Tangible Rewards -.12 -.24* .02 -.06 Discontent .08 .16 .13 .12 Power P .05 05 -.07 07 .09 09 .08 08 Career -.06 -.27* -.03 -.12 a = lead user vs non lead user lead-user vs. non-lead * p < .05 05 Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 22
  • 23. Results – Motivational Indicators Energetization 2 β Lead-Userness a .20* Age .30** Gender -.07 Energetization 1 .29 29** Passive house b -.10 Mobility c -.08 Lead-Userness x Passive house -.01 Lead-Userness x Mobility -.06 * p < .05, ** p < .01 a = lead user vs. non-lead user b = dummy variable: passive houses vs. others c = dummy variable: with mobility vs. others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 23
  • 24. Results – Motivational Indicators Flow 2 β Lead-Userness a .23** Age .08 08 Gender .04 Flow 1 .29 29** Passive house b -.11 Mobility c -.01 Lead-Userness x Passive house .05 Lead-Userness x Mobility .05 a = lead user vs. non-lead user * p < .05, ** p < .01 b = dummy variable: passive houses vs. others c = dummy variable: with mobility vs. others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 24
  • 25. Results – Motivational Indicators (1) Lead users are more energetic at the end of the workshop (2) Lead users are more focused on the task (flow experience) (3) We found no differences between the marketplaces Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 25
  • 26. Conclusions Considering motivation: Integration of lead users into sustainable product development could be recommended Limitation: High motivation is a necessary condition for achievement, but not a sufficient condition Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 26
  • 27. Thank you Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 27
  • 28. Literatur Engeser, S. & Rheinberg, F. (2008). Flow, moderators of challenge-skill balance and performance. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 158-172. Heckhausen, J. & Heckhausen, H. (2008). Motivation and action. Cambridge: University Press. Hertel, G., Niedner, S. & Herrmann, S. (2003). Motivation of software developers in open source projects: an internet-based survey of contributors to the Linux kernel. Research Policy, 32, 1159-1177. Kehr, H. M. (2004). Kehr H M (2004) Integrating implicit motives, explicit motives, and perceived abilities: The compensatory motives motives model of work motivation und volition. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 479-499. Lüthje, C. Herstatt, C., and von Hippel, E. (2005). User-Innovators and “Local” Information: The case of mountain biking. Research Policy, 34, 951-965. Matthews, G., Jones, D. M. & Chamberlain, A. G. (1990). Refining the measurement of mood: The UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 17-42. Morrison, P. D., Roberts, J. H., & Midgley, D. F. (2004). The nature of lead users and measurement of leading edge status. Research Policy, 33(2), 351–362. g g y ( ) Schreier, M. & Prügl. R. (2008). Extending lead-user theory: antecedents and consequences of consumers’ lead userness. Product Innovation Management, 25, 331-346. Simon, B., Loewy, M., Stürmer, S., Weber, U., Freytag, P., Habig, C., Kampmeier, C. & Spahlinger, P. (1998). Collective identification and social movement participation Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 participation. 74, 646–658. Von Hippel, E. (1986). Lead users: a source of novel product concepts. Management Science, 32, 791-806. Wu, C.-G., Gerlach, J. H., Young, C. E. (2007. An empirical analysis of open source software developers’ motivations and continuance intentions. Information & Management, 44, 253-262. Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 28