He tuan hoan tham khao 2

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  • A powerful four–chambered heart was an essential adaptation in support of the endothermic way of life characteristic of mammals and birds. Endotherms use about ten times as much energy as equal–sized ectotherms; therefore, their circulatory systems need to deliver about ten times as much fuel and O2 to their tissues (and remove ten times as much CO2 and other wastes). This large traffic of substances is made possible by separate and independent systemic and pulmonary circulations and by large, powerful hearts that pump the necessary volume of blood. Mammals and birds descended from different reptilian ancestors, and their four–chambered hearts evolved independently—an example of convergent evolution. Why is it an advantage to get big? Herbivore: can eat more with bigger gut. lowers predation (but will push predators to get bigger as well, although no one east elephant s.)
  • He tuan hoan tham khao 2

    1. 1. Figure 20.20b
    2. 2. Figure 20.20c
    3. 3. Figure 20.20d
    4. 4. Figure 20.21b
    5. 5. Figure 20.22b
    6. 6. Figure 20.22c
    7. 7. Figure 20.22d
    8. 8. Figure 18.1a
    9. 9. Figure 18.1b
    10. 10. Figure 18.3
    11. 11. Figure 18.4a
    12. 12. Figure 18.4b
    13. 13. Figure 18.4c
    14. 14. Figure 18.5
    15. 15. Figure 18.6
    16. 16. Figure 18.7
    17. 17. Figure 18.3
    18. 18. Figure 20.1ab
    19. 19. Figure 20.1c
    20. 20. Figure 20.2
    21. 21. Figure 20.3
    22. 22. Figure 20.3
    23. 23. Figure 20.4a
    24. 24. Figure 20.4b
    25. 25. Figure 20.4c
    26. 26. Figure 20.7
    27. 27. Figure 20.9
    28. 28. Figure 20.12
    29. 29. Figure 20.17a
    30. 30. Figure 20.18b
    31. 31. <ul><li>Why do we need a circulatory system? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supplies in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fuel (sugars) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digestive system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waste out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>circulatory system </li></ul></ul></ul>Feeding Energy Needs
    32. 32. Simple organisms <ul><li>When your body is only 2-cell layers thick, you can get supplies in and waste out just through diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all cells within easy reach of fluid </li></ul></ul>Hydra Jellyfish
    33. 33. Complex organisms <ul><li>Circulatory system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made up of 3 parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heart </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tissues & cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arteries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>veins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>red blood cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plasma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Vertebrate Heart <ul><li>4-Chambered heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>atria (atrium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thin wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collection chamber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>receive blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thick wall pump </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pump blood out </li></ul></ul></ul>right atrium left atrium right ventricle left ventricle
    35. 36. Evolution of circulatory system fish amphibian reptiles birds & mammals A A V V V V V A A A A A V 2 chamber 3 chamber 3 chamber 4 chamber Not everyone has a 4-chambered heart
    36. 37. Lub-dub, lub-dub <ul><li>4 valves in the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flaps of connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevent backflow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>closing of valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Lub” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>force blood against closed AV valves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dub” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>force of blood against semilunar valves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart murmur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leaking valve causes hissing sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood squirts backward through valve </li></ul></ul>AV SL AV
    37. 38. Blood vessels arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins artery arterioles venules veins
    38. 39. Major arteries pulmonary artery pulmonary artery = to lungs aorta carotid = to head to brain & left arm to right arm coronary arteries to body
    39. 40. Coronary artery bypass bypass surgery
    40. 41. Electrical signals <ul><li>heart pumping controlled by electrical impulses </li></ul><ul><li>signal also transmitted to skin = EKG </li></ul>allows atria to empty completely before ventricles contract stimulates ventricles to contract from bottom to top, driving blood into arteries
    41. 42. Structure-function relationship <ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very thin walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows diffusion of materials across capillary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O, food, waste </li></ul></ul></ul>body cell O 2 food waste CO 2
    42. 43. Hemoglobin <ul><li>Protein which carries O 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 hemoglobins in 1 red blood cell </li></ul></ul>O 2 O 2 O 2 O 2
    43. 44. Cardiovascular health <ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high animal fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exercise & lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smoking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lack of exercise </li></ul></ul></ul>bypass surgery
    44. 45. Figure 21.1 A Comparison of a Typical Artery and a Typical Vein Figure 21.1
    45. 46. Figure 21.4 Capillary Structure Figure 21.4
    46. 47. Figure 21.5 The Organization of a Capillary Bed Figure 21.5a, b
    47. 48. Figure 21.6 The Function of Valves in the Venous System Figure 21.6
    48. 49. Figure 21.7 The Distribution of Blood in the Cardiovascular System Figure 21.7
    49. 50. Figure 21.8 An Overview of Cardiovascular Physiology Figure 21.8
    50. 51. Figure 21.10 Pressures within the Cardiovascular System Figure 21.10
    51. 52. Figure 21.10 Pressures within the Cardiovascular System Figure 21.10
    52. 53. Figure 21.12 Capillary Filtration Figure 21.12
    53. 54. Figure 21.12 Capillary Filtration Figure 21.12
    54. 55. Figure 21.13 Forces Acting across Capillary Walls Figure 21.13
    55. 56. Figure 21.14 Homeostatic Adjustments that Compensate for a Reduction in Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Figure 21.14
    56. 57. Figure 21.14 Homeostatic Adjustments that Compensate for a Reduction in Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Figure 21.14
    57. 58. Figure 21.15 Baroreceptor Reflexes of the Carotid and Aortic Sinuses Figure 21.15
    58. 59. Figure 21.16 The Chemoreceptor Reflexes Figure 21.16
    59. 60. Figure 21.17 The Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume Figure 21.17a
    60. 61. Figure 21.17 The Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume Figure 21.17b
    61. 62. Figure 21.35 Fetal Circulation Figure 21.35a, b

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