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FOREST FIRE – THREAT TO ECOLOGICAL SECURITY New approach to deal withDr.Rajiv K.Srivastava, I.F.S.,
Introduction Natural & un-natural fire Biodiversity loss Past management World cry National Policy Population impact Inside Human (Settlement / villagers) Outside Cattle Remote sensing report Fire in Himalayas / Western Ghats.
STRATAGIC LOCATION OF INDIA MAKING IT ONE OF THE MAGA BIODIVERSITY ZONE
Estimated Forest Areas affected by Forest Fire State District Total Forest area affected by fire (%) Ranchi 62.1 Bihar West Champaran 95.3 Assam All Districts 33.8 Cooch Bihar 49.4 West Bengal Darjeeling 31.0 Tehri Garhwal 46.2 Hill Region 69.5 U.P. Tarai Region 74.6 South Region 30.3 Orissa Kalahandi 82.4 Koraput 69.6 Karnataka Shimoga 46.7 Mysore 57.3 Chikmaglur 43 Hassan 57.3Dadra and Nagar Haveli Dadra and Nagar Haveli 97 Manipur All Districts 42 Mizoram Aizawl 35 Tripura All Districts 89
State District Total Forest area affected by fire (%) Lower Subansiri 51.1Arunachal Pradesh Upper Subansiri 6.8 Sikkim All Districts 33.2 Meghalaya All Districts 41.9 Shimla/Rohru/Chopal, Chamba, Lahul -Spiti 60.1Himachal Pradesh Kinnaur 44.9 Rajasthan S.E. Rajasthan 23.7Haryana & Punjab Shiwalik Range 31.7 J&K Jammu Region 35.8 Maharashtra Nasik/Thane, Raigad 55 Adilabad 35 Andhra Pradesh Cuddapah 30 Kurnol 40 Gujarat Amerile 35 Bharuch 30 Gujarat cont.. Panchmahalas 45 Surat 30 Raigarh 77 Guna 28 Chattarpur 30 Madhya Pradesh Jabalpur 30 Panna 30 Raipur 63
Causes of forest fireGrazersMFP collectorHead LoaderPoachersEncroachersRevengeTourists/ PilgrimsCarelessness
Hot spots of India’s Biodiversity under severe threat due to wild fire (Important Ecosystem in danger) Himalayan Ecosystem Manmade Fire – An ecological disaster in Himalayas Threat to pine forest and sal forest Target – Herbs/shrubs/broad leave species Causes of Fire Grazers,NTFP collectors, Tourist, Poachers and Farmers Impact Soil erosion,water holding capacity,wiping out broad leave species, floral and faunal wealth, entry of invasive species
WESTERN GHAT – SHOLA GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM UNDER THREAT DUE TO FIRE SHOLA GRASSLAND – A FRAGILE ECOSYSTEM UNDER SEVERE THREAT IMPACT OF FIRE ON SHOLA AND GRASSLAND VEGETATION, MOIST DECIDUOUS FORESTS AND DRY DECIDUOUS FORESTS SPECIES AFFECTED – SANDAL, KADUKKAI, REDSANDERS AND SHOLA SPECIES IMPACT ON WATER RETENTION, SOILEROSION, POOR DENSITY OF VULNERABLE SPECIES, INVASION OF EXOTICS
THE POTENTIAL EFFECT OF FOREST FIRE IN THE FOREST ECOSYSTEM Soil Development and Nutrient Vegetation and Plant Species Circulation Long Term Changing Rates of Soil Organic Matter Formation Curtailment of Natural Succession & Regeneration Effecting Amounting and Availability of Minerals A Mosaic of Successional Stages Burning Frequency Affecting Population of Micro- organism Short-Term Increase in Soil Erosion with loss of Affecting Plant Biomass, Structures Vegetation and Shape Affecting Plant Phenology Water and Water Circulation Affecting Forage Nutrient Level Changed Rates of Evaporation and Transpiration Species Changed Rates of Permeability Sub- Altering Pattern of Resource Surface Flow Availability-Cover Food Water Changed Rates of Sediment and Altering Pattern of Distribution Water Possibility of Mortality Changed Stream and River Structure
IMPACTS OF FOREST FIRE Forest ecosystem Global warming. Change in landscape Loss of carbon sink resource and Effect on photosynthesis increase in percentage of CO2 in the Effect on food web atmosphere. Change in the microclimate of the Effect on seed capacity area with unhealthy living conditions. Effect on new recruits Soil erosion affecting productivity of Loss of valuable timber soils and production. resources. Ozone layer depletion. Degradation of catchment Health problems leading to disease. areas. Loss of livelihood for the tribal and Loss of biodiversity and rural poor, as approximately 300 extinction of plants and million people (including 70 million tribal) are dependent upon collection animals. of non-timber forest products from Loss of wild-life, habitat and the forest areas for their livelihood. depletion of wild-life. Loss of natural regeneration and reduction in forest cover.
Global Estimation of release of carbon into the atmosphere due to biomass burning Source of burning Biomass burned (Tg dry Carbon released matter/ year) (TgC/year) Savannas 3690 1660Agricultural waste 2020 910 Tropical forests 1260 570 Fuel wood 1430 640 Temperate & 280 130 boreal forests Charcoal 20 30 World total 8700 3940
FIRE ENVIRONMENT TRIANGL WeatherFuel Fire Topography
Change in landscape Loss of PhotosynthesisEffect on Seed capacity Fire effects riverine ecosystem
Forest Fire – Invasive species correlationA great threat to Ecosystem due to Invasive behaviour of exotic weedGentle heat help in opening the Dormancy of invasive sp. (lantana seed) New recruits require protectionEntry of Intrusive species in various landscape of India Lantana camara Acacia mearnsii Eupatorium odoratum Parthenium sp. Aegratum sp. Acacia mearnsii Invasion of Ulex europaeus
Impact of forest fire on insect worldPollinationAmeliorationFood chain Effect on pollination
Impact on Amphibians Loss of habitat Disappearance from planet Food chain A new frog spp. From Karian shola Impact of forest fire on Reptiles Loss of habitat Food chain SuffocationMonitor lizard- Loss of habitat Pangolin in search of food
Impact on birds Migration Shrinkage of habitat Lack of food materials Pollination Dispersal Nesting behaviour Ground Thrush- Nesting materials are getting declined. Black Necked Blue Fly Catcher- White-bellied treepie- Crying Migration of Great Hornbill to Scared of fire due to disturbances higher elevation
Corridor Habitat Food habit Man-animals conflict Migration Elephants- Loss of corridor Giant Squirrels- Habitat Man- animal conflicts- Leopards Vayals- an important feeding loss are coming out of forests. ground
• Due to vast diversity and type of forest, Forest fire has different period as per site. Forest fire season in Mudumalai starts from January onward.• Intensity and frequency get high in the first fortnight of February, due to sun intensity and coupling with dryness of vegetation.• The Reserve as a whole had a fire-return interval of 3.3 years. Compared with a 13 year Mudumalai fire data set from 1909 – 1921 having a fire return interval of 10 years, this represents a threefold increase in fire frequency over the last 80 years.Fire Mitigation 1) Pre-fire seasons (preparedness) 2) fire fighting operation (during fire season) 3) Post fire operation
Identification of team leader for the fire fighting team and selection of team for assigned place. The fire fighting equipments are checked before the season and are kept at proper places. Further, if any additional equipments are needed the same may be procured and kept ready. As per the existing network of fire line estimates are prepared and are sanctioned before the fire season so that the work can be carried out before the end of December. Strategy for engaging fire watchers and requirement of watchers as per the utility / vulnerability for fire / fire entry point of the reserve of the are to be finalized and accordingly estimates are to be prepared and got sanctioned well in advance.
Preparedness Cont ………. Massive awareness has to be created well in advance among the public, local people of core area and adjoining areas so as to ensure their co-operation for the control of fire with the reserve management. In this connection the awareness can be created through district gazette notification, publicity through notice, through eco-awareness/ Interpretation centers, through media and through tom - tom in the adjoining area of Reserve. (Case study documented by IIFM is enclosed herewith vide ANNEXURE – II.) All the staff including uniformed staff, fire watchers and anti- poaching watcher are to be trained before the fire season. Specialized persons / experts can be engaged for the purpose of giving training. The fire fighting teams, fire watchers and anti poaching watchers including uniform staff are put in for mock drill for controlling fire. The removal of invasive exotic weeds has to be taken up at fire entry point as well as in vulnerable areas. A meeting has to be conducted along with field staff of adjoining division and state to ensure better protection during fire season.
• Direction of wind• Location of fire• Upword or down word• Status of litter• Status of Vegetation• Selection of place for counter fire• Number of persons required.
Need of AwarenessNeed of Proper PlanNeed of Proper strategyNeed of timely actionNeed of Proper coordinationNeed of sufficient staffNeed of Proper communicationNeed of approach roadNeed of sufficient trendNeed of equipment
Activities related to Fire Disaster Management Centre
Discussion with Staff to develop strategy for Fire Management at Beat level
FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS Fire fighting tools,. Drinking water facility, Medical aid kit, Fire extinguishers, Oxygen cylinder, Jaggery Stretcher Sintex Tank Rescue Van
To collect the information from satellite station everyday To control vehicle movement along the highway. To assign the job to workforce in vulnerable areas. To know the firefighting location To supply equipment and food material without wasting time. To collect laborers and transport to desired destinations. To coordinate between Range officers To inform the Field Director about the incidence. To coordinate with neighboring Ranges, Divisions and states. To provide first aid facility at the fire fighting spot. To provide ration/ provision/ water to fire fighters. To alert the neighboring Ranges, Divisions and states. To use the siren in emergency to make the staff alert and act fast.
Awareness regarding Forest Fire - Collabarative Effort
Collaborative Awareness around Reserve Forest Since ban and punish has not worked with ….Why? Lack of awareness Accidental Fire Sense of responsibility.It will address Detrimental effect of forest fire It will generate awareness of belongingness It will gain goodwill of the people. Sense of responsibility for the conservation and protection of forests Collaborative effort - Coimbatore model Selection of villages for awareness keeping following criteria in mind . Most vulnerable Medium vulnerable Least vulnerable Past record of fire Offence detail Reserve Forest wise and Village wise.
Collaborative Awareness around Reserve ForestFormation of Forest Fire Protection Committee Selection of pioneer leader Constitution of committee of committed people Involvement of local NGO’s Involvement of local school teachers Participation of womenResponsibility of committee For creating awareness To combat forest fire adjoining village To give information about the forest fire out break In apprehending the culprit Department Action Teachers Training programme Organizing social bonding Building confidence amongst villagers Award / Reward. Lastly Institutionalization is needed
Fire Induced vegetation Fire, play an important role as a forest management tool. Dormancy has to be opened of hard coated seed Grassland has to be maintained to induce flowering in certain grass and orchids. Herbivores dominated vegetation needs cool burning in an identified area to support herbivore for palatable grasses Some ecosystems are fire adopted and require periodic fires to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem dynamics.
Intervention to help Forest Fire Management Main Goal Conserve Biodiversity Wildlife habitat Restore degraded ecosystem and to conserve sustainable ecosystem goods and services Broader Landscape Management Approach Through knowledge of local vegetation Type of forest Litter load Area under Invasive species Fire effected area in the past Fire entry point - Fireline / blockline Protection of wetlands Dryness calendar of the Reserve forest Role of people’s utilization of goods and services from forest Understanding of local stakeholders awareness of the potential of forests to provide ecosystem goods and services To develop grassland – Forest mosaic through a controlled fire.
Research on landscape to look into Fire Management It should be site specific Vegetative barrier has to be identified (local species / site specific) Fire dryness indicators Study of vegetation dynamics in relation to varying fire frequency and intensity in different ecosystem ( Wetland, Grassland)To understand socio- Economic and cultural drivers of forest fire in IndiaFire induced ecosystem – related to grazers, hunting, worship and NTFP collection - Address this issue and to develop mitigation strategy
RecommendationsMassive awareness amongst rural masses through campaigns using allmeans are needed to get them realize the importance andresponsibilities.Stronger collaboration amongst neighboring state / Division to developfire management strategiesNeed to develop scientific data regarding Forest fire incidences andtheir proper interpretation to tackle the problem.Fire Disaster Management Centre at Division levelBeat level Management plan to control Fire.Strengthening monitoring and communication system.Improving transport facilities.Judicious use of forest fire equipments.
Recommendations Cont………. Coordination between fire fighting units. Effective use of fire squad. Comprehensive scientific information on Forest fires in the country is scanty and detailed studies are required for better management of forests Suitable afforestation technique has to be developed to tackle fire prone areas. Phyotogeographic zone has to be identified to recloth the area with endemic species. Effective Forest Fire information system is required at National, State, Regional and local level. Forest Fire research Institute with zonal centre is needed to deal With Scientific package for different biodiversity zone, Capacity building to staff and public, Extension activities Silviculture system has to be developed for fire prone areas Indicator of climatic change in different zone has to be worked out
If we want to see these beautiful creatures with vivid form and colors from one generation to other, we have to extend our caring hand not the selfish hand.