Smoking and pregnancy


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Negative effects of smoking on babies like Low birth weight, Premature delivery, Stillbirth, Increased risk of Asthma or SIDS, Elevated risk of congenital heart defects and Lifelong effects on baby's brain are discussed in this presentation.

Negative effects of smoking on mothers such as difficulty getting pregnant, Placental abruption, Placenta previa, Premature rupture of membranes and Ectopic pregnancy are also dealt in this presentation.

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Smoking and pregnancy

  1. 1. Smoking and Pregnancy Dr. P.Naina Mohamed Pharmacologist
  2. 2. Introduction • • • • • • Cigarette smoke contains more than 4,000 chemicals, including Nicotine, Carbon monoxide, Cyanide, Lead, and at least 60 Carcinogenic (cancer-causing ) compounds. All these chemicals mix with mothers’ blodstream and passed to babies to cause complications like o 20 to 30 percent of low-birth weight babies o up to 14 percent of preterm deliveries and o about 10 percent of all infant deaths Maternal smoking has also been linked to asthma among infants and young children. The most effective way to protect the fetus is to quit smoking. If a woman plans to conceive a child in the near future, quitting is essential. Quitting smoking within the first three or four months of pregnancy can lower the chances premature baby or health problems related to smoking.
  3. 3. Effects on babies • Smoking during pregnancy may cause health problems in babies, like – • Low birth weight • Premature birth (being born too early) • Still birth • Respiratory complications • Congenital heart defects • CNS effects • Fetal death • Infant death
  4. 4. Low birth weight, Premature delivery & Stillbirth Smoking during Pregnancy Nicotine and carbon monoxide passed through mothers’ bloodstream Nicotine constricts blood vessels and reduces oxygen supply Red blood cells start to carry carbon monoxide instead of oxygen Reduced oxygen supply to the babies Baby's growth and development affected Low birth weight, Premature delivery and Stillbirth
  5. 5. Respiratory complications Smoking during Pregnancy Baby's growth and development affected Undersize baby Underdeveloped body Babies’ lungs may not be ready to work on their own Delayed lung development Increased risk of Asthma or SIDS
  6. 6. Congenital heart defects Smoking during Pregnancy (First Trimester) Elevated risk of congenital heart defects Right ventricular outflow tract obstructions & Atrial septal defects
  7. 7. CNS effects Smoking during Pregnancy Lifelong effects on baby's brain Learning disorders, Behavioral problems & relatively low IQs
  8. 8. Effects on Mothers • Smoking during pregnancy may cause health problems in mothers, like o Difficulty getting pregnant o Placental Abruption (Early seperation of Placenta ) o Placenta previa (Placenta covers the cervix) o Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (Early breaking of water) o Ectopic pregnancy (Pregnancy occurs outside the womb)
  9. 9. Difficulty getting pregnant Smoking Reduction of women’s fertility rates Take longer to conceive or not being able to get pregnant
  10. 10. Placental abruption Smoking during Pregnancy Placental abruption (Early seperation of placenta) Bleeding Dangerous to the mother and baby
  11. 11. Placenta previa Smoking during Pregnancy Placenta previa (Placenta covers the cervix) Bleeding, C – section, Placenta accreta, Hysterectomy, etc.
  12. 12. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) Smoking during Pregnancy Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (Early breaking of water) High risk of infection
  13. 13. Ectopic Pregnancy Smoking during Pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy (Pregnancy occurs outside womb) Rupture with internal haemorrhage Hypovolemic shock
  14. 14. Second hand smoke and pregnancy • • • • The mother and the growing baby are at high risk of developing lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, allergies, asthma, and other health problems, if the mother is regularly exposed to secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke is also called passive smoke or environmental tobacco smoke and it is the combination of smoke from a burning cigarette and smoke exhaled by a smoker. Secondhand smoke contains more harmful substances such as tar, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and others ,. Babies exposed to secondhand smoke may also develop reduced lung capacity and are at higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
  15. 15. Tips to get away from Second hand smoke  Make the home and car smoke-free.  Ask the people not to smoke around you and your children.  Make sure that your children’s day care center or school is smokefree.  Choosing restaurants and other businesses that are smoke-free.  Thank businesses for being smoke-free.  Teach children to stay away from other people’s smoke.  Avoid all smoke.  Learn as much as you can by talking to your doctor, nurse, or health care provider more about the dangers of other people’s smoke.
  16. 16. Tips to quit smoking • • • • • • • • • • • Hide the matches, lighters, and ashtrays. Designate the home a non-smoking area. Ask people who smoke not to smoke around you. Drink fewer caffeinated beverages; caffeine may stimulate the urge to smoke. Avoid alcohol, as it may also increase the urge to smoke. Change the habits connected with smoking. If you smoked while driving or when feeling stressed, try other activities to replace smoking. Keep mints or gum (preferably sugarless) on hand for those times when you get the urge to smoke. Stay active to keep the mind off smoking and help relieve tension. Take a walk, exercise, read a book, or try a new a hobby. Look for support from others. Join a support group or smoking cessation program. Do not go places where many people are smoking such as bars or clubs, and smoking sections of restaurants.
  17. 17. Benefits of quitting smoking • When the mother stops smoking—  The baby will get more oxygen, even after just one day of not smoking.  There is less risk that the baby will be born too early.  There is a better chance that the baby will come home from the hospital with mother.  Mother will be less likely to develop heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, chronic lung disease, and other smoke-related diseases.  Mother will be more likely to live to know her grandchildren.  Mother will have more energy and breathe more easily.  Mother’s clothes, hair, and home will smell better.  Mother’s food will taste better.  Mother will have more money that she can spend on other things.  Mother will feel good about what she has done for herself and her baby.  Quitting Smoking Can Be Hard, But It Is One of the Best Ways a Woman Can Protect Herself and Her Baby's Health.
  18. 18. References • CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Obstetrics & Gynecology, 11e Alan H. DeCherney, Lauren Nathan, Neri Laufer, Ashley S. Roman • CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics, 21e William W. Hay, Jr., Myron J. Levin, Robin R. Deterding, Mark J. Abzug, Judith M. Sondheimer • Behavioral Medicine: A Guide for Clinical Practice, 3e Mitchell D. Feldman, John F. Christensen • Harrison's Online Featuring the complete contents of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e Dan L. Longo, Anthony S. Fauci, Dennis L. Kasper, Stephen L. Hauser, J. Larry Jameson, Joseph Loscalzo, Eds.
  19. 19. References • • tobaccocancer/womenandsmoking/womenand-smoking-health-of-others • •
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