Vietnam History And GeographyPresentation Transcript
Vietnam’s History and Geography
Table of Contents Early History Chinese Influence French Rule Indo-Chinese War Land Area Populations & Trends
Early History Vietnam's early history is nearly a continuous struggle for autonomy. China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period in 111 BC until 938. In 111 BC, the Chinese troops invaded Nanyue and established new territories dividing Vietnam into Giao Chi (pinyin: Jiao Zhi) and Cuu Chan.
Early History In 40 AD, a successful revolt against the Han Governor To Đinh (pinyin: Su Ding), led by the two noble women TrungTrac and her sister TrungNhi, recaptured 65 states. In 42 AD, Emperor Guangwu of Han sent his famous general Ma Yuan to suppress the revolt. After a torturous campaign, Ma Yuan defeated the Trung Queen, who committed suicide. To this day, the Trung Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women.
Early History Learning a lesson from the Trung revolt, the Han and other successful Chinese dynasties took measures to eliminate the power of the Vietnamese nobles. However, in 225 AD, another woman, TrieuThi Trinh, popularly known as Lady Trieu (BàTriệu), led another revolt which lasted until 248 AD. During the Tang dynasty, Vietnam was called Annam, until early 10th century AD.
Chinese Influence QiPao Áo Dài
Háttuồng /Hátbội Chinese Opera
French rule in Vietnam How did it all started: French missionaries arrived in Vietnam Vietnamese authorities concerned when missionaries recruit local people to Roman Catholicism. French troops sent to Vietnam to protect Catholic community Napoleon III sent 14 ships and 2,500 men to the Vietnam Vietnam Emperor surrendered and signed a peace treaty with France
French rule in Vietnam During French Rule: Good supplies of coal, tin, zinc and rubber. French built a network of roads, canals and railways. Vietnamese administrators needed French schools were built and in 1902, Hanoi University was opened
French rule in Vietnam Surrender of French: The French surrendered on May 7th 1954 French casualties totaled over 7,000 and a further 11,000 soldiers were taken prisoner North Vietnam would be ruled by Ho Chi Minh South Vietnam would be ruled by Ngo Dinh Diem, a strong opponent of communism; Vietnamese could freely choose to live in the North or the South
French rule in Vietnam Influence of French: Education system Huge economic growth in plantation with the export of indigo, tea, coffee and tobacco. Christianity and Western style education.
Indo- Chinese War Indochina 1. Indochina/ French War: 1946-1954 2. Vietnam/ American War: 1954-1975 3. Sino- Vietnamese War: February- March 1979
First Indochina war: 1946-1954 Communist North- Vietnamese supported by People’s Republic of China Soviet Union French supported by French loyalist Vietnamese United Nations To gain independence from the French French were defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu
French were defeated
Second Indochina War: 1954-1975 South Vietnamese government backed by USA North Vietnamese-based communist National Liberation Front aka Viet Cong & North Vietnamese Army (NVA) Direct successor of First Indochina War Included Cambodia & Laos “War Against the Americans and to Save the Nation” USA withdrew
Third Indochina War: February- March 1979 People’s Republic of China (PRC) vs Socialist Republic of Vietnam PRC’s response to Vietnam’s invasion and occupation of Cambodia Lasted only a month Both claimed victory
Land area of Vietnam Located at the extreme southeastern of the Indochinese peninsular Country’s layout is a ‘S’ in shape Occupies 331688 square kilometers of land area Has a coastline of 3260 kilometers excluding islands Boundary with Laos was ratified only in 1986 Border issues with Cambodia was resolved between 1982-1985
Geographical information of Vietnam Made up of mainly tropical lowlands, hills, and densely forested highlands Country is divided into the highlands and the Red River Delta in the north Comprises of central mountains, coastal lowlands and Mekong river delta in the south The central mountains is covered by rugged mountain peaks, extensive forest and rich soil Accounts for 16% of country’s arable land and 22% of forested land Annual rainfall ranges from 120mm-300mm Temperature ranges from 5°C in December to 37°C in April
Population and Trends Over all :86,210,860 (July 2008 est.) Age 0-14 years: 25.6% (male 11,418,642/female 10,598,184) Age 15-64 years: 68.6% (male 29,341,216/female 29,777,696) Age 65 years and over: 5.8% (male 1,925,609/female 3,055,212)
Population and Trends Large enough to make it the 2nd most populous country in South-east Asia 7th in the Asia-Pacific region 12th in the world list A total of 54 ethnic groups Kinh, the majority ethnic group in Vietnam 86% of the population
Population and Trends
Population growth over the years and the estimated growth till 2020.
Vietnam population is growing continuously
Estimation of population density based on past years records
gradual increase for every 5 years.
Current population density is 265per sq. km
Population and Trends Birth rate 16.47 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate 6.18 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.) Life expectancy at birth Total population: 71.33 years Male: 68.52 years Female: 74.33 years