GENERAL DIRECTORATE OF
FORESTRY
MAIN TREE SPECIES
By: Mehmet YARDIMCI
SARIÇAMSARIÇAM SCOTCH PINESCOTCH PINE (Pinus sylvestris L. )(Pinus sylvestris L. )
Scotch Pine often forms forests of pure...
KAYINKAYIN BEECHBEECH Fagus sp. L.Fagus sp. L.
Beech, though mostly found in our northern regions, grows
up in Amanos moun...
KARAÇAM CRIMEAN PINE Pinus nigra Arnold.
Crimean Pine forms forests of pure or mixed type
in mountainous areas of all coas...
SEDİRSEDİR CEDARCEDAR (Cedrus libani A.Rich. )(Cedrus libani A.Rich. )
ıt grows naturally in East, West and Mid Taurus
Mou...
KIZILÇAM CALABRIAN PINE (Pinus brutia Ten.)
The most abundant spread of Calabrian Pine in the
world is in Turkey. Although...
GÖKNAR FIR (Abies sp. Mill.)
Fir with a trunk height of up to 40
m, can easily be distinguished
from other coniferous fami...
LADİN SPRUCE (Picea orientalis (L) Link.)
Spruce, which spreads out mostly
in the mild and cold reigons in the
North semip...
FISTIKÇAMI STONE PINE (Pinus pinea L.)
Stone pine, a typical Mediterranean
tree, forms forests especially in West
and Sout...
ARDIÇ JUNIPER (Juniperus sp. L.)
Juniper shows a large range of species from
bushes to large trees, and can be found natur...
PORSUK YEW-TREE (Taxus baccata L.)
Yew tree, which has a very large existence area in
Europe, in Mediterranean Countries a...
SERVİ CYPRESS Cupressus sempervirens L.
One of the rare Cypress natural
forests in the world is in the south of
our contry...
MEŞE OAK (Quercus sp. L.)
 Oak can develop and grow up almost in any part of our
country with species. Varieties of specie...
GÜRGEN HORNBEAM (Carpinus sp. L.)
Hornbeam spread over a large area including Thrace, Agean,
Marmara, North and East Anato...
KIZILAĞAÇ ALDER (Alnus glutinosa Mill.)
 Alder spreads over a large area in Thrace, Marmara, West
and East Black-Sea regio...
AKCAAGAC MAPLE (Acer sp. L.)
Maple takes its name from the light
color of its wood. 9 types of maple
grow in Turkey. As th...
DİŞBUDAK ASH (Fraxinus sp. L.)
Ash spreads over in Thrace, Marmara, Agean and West
and East Black-Sea regions. Its height ...
KESTANE CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa Mill.)
Chestnut spreads over in Marmara,
and North Anatolian regions.
Anatolian Chestnut...
ÇINAR PLANE (Platanus orientalis L.)
Plane tree grows up naturally
near stream sides and river
valleys. The kind mostly fo...
HUŞ BIRCH (Betula sp. L.)
Birch can be found alone or mixed with other species of
trees in higher lands of Northern Anatol...
IHLAMUR LIME (Tilia sp. L.)
Lime is found in West Black-Sea,
Middle Taurus and Northern
Anatolia regions. It is a dense-
b...
SIĞLA Styrax (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.)
The only natural cultivation area
of Styrax (amber smelling) tree in
the world...
KAVAK POPLAR (Populus sp. L.)
Poplar grows up in almost all
regions in Turkey. It shows
variations in form, size, leaf
str...
thanks
Mehmet YARDIMCI
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  1. 1. GENERAL DIRECTORATE OF FORESTRY MAIN TREE SPECIES By: Mehmet YARDIMCI
  2. 2. SARIÇAMSARIÇAM SCOTCH PINESCOTCH PINE (Pinus sylvestris L. )(Pinus sylvestris L. ) Scotch Pine often forms forests of pure or mixed type, in higher mountainous areas of North Anatolia; however, it also extends to inner and south regions in the form of small patches. Pure Scotch Pine forests in Turkey covers an area of 757,426 ha. It takes its name from the yellow color of its barks, separatable from the trunk in the forms of slabs. It has a delicate trunk, a sharp crown and thin branches and grows up to 40 m of height. Apart from its unique color of barks it can be distinguished from other pines at a first glance, by properties such as the shortness of its thin leaves and its bluish green color. trunk l leaves eaves, shoots and cone
  3. 3. KAYINKAYIN BEECHBEECH Fagus sp. L.Fagus sp. L. Beech, though mostly found in our northern regions, grows up in Amanos mountains in the south, too. It forms pure forests, or gets mixed with fir, pine, spruce and oak trees to form forest areas. In our country, there are 66,357 ha high beech forest areas; and 297 ha copies areas. It can grow up to 40 m high tall, with straight and cylinder-like trunks. Its leaves, with a length of 6-9 cm, have got an elliptical shape with wave-like sides, and a very influential color in autumn. Its fatty fruit is an important source of nutrient for the wild animals in nature. Naturally grown types in Turkey are;
  4. 4. KARAÇAM CRIMEAN PINE Pinus nigra Arnold. Crimean Pine forms forests of pure or mixed type in mountainous areas of all coastal regions, and even penetrates towards to steppeland. Crimean Pine forests in the forest area covers an area of 2,527,685 ha. It can be distinguished from other pines by the thickness of its trunk and its branches, by gray barks with deep cracks and by dark green color of needle type leaves. It can grow up to 30-35 m of height. The 4 natural sub-species are; Anatolia Black Pine (P. nigra var. pallasiana), Pyramid Black Pine (P. nigra var. Pyramidata E,) and Black Pine
  5. 5. SEDİRSEDİR CEDARCEDAR (Cedrus libani A.Rich. )(Cedrus libani A.Rich. ) ıt grows naturally in East, West and Mid Taurus Mountains, and it presents a small and limited expansion to Erbaa and Niksar areas in the North. The largest natural forests of Taurus cedar, one of the four cedar types, in the world is in Turkey. Cedar forests in Turkey covers an area of 109,440 ha. Their height can reach up to 40m. The crown part, once resembling a pyramid in youth, changes by time and becomes low and flattened. Needle leaves are short, sharp and pricking, and several of them are located on a small shoot branch together in bundles. Cones resembling an egg or a barrel disintegrates when it is ripe, just like firs, and the axis remain on the shoot
  6. 6. KIZILÇAM CALABRIAN PINE (Pinus brutia Ten.) The most abundant spread of Calabrian Pine in the world is in Turkey. Although it mainly forms forests in Mediterranean and Agean Regions, it presents a local spread in West and Middle Black Sea Regions. Pure Calabrian Pine forests in our country cover an area of 3,729,866 ha. Calabrian Pine may grow up in altitudes of 1,000-2,000 m above sea level; It is not shade tolerant and a fastgrowing pine type. It can have a height of up to 20 m. It takes its name from its thick and dark red young shoots. Calabrian Pine resembles in general Jarusalem Pine (Pinus halepensis,), which develops in southern reigons.
  7. 7. GÖKNAR FIR (Abies sp. Mill.) Fir with a trunk height of up to 40 m, can easily be distinguished from other coniferous family by its unique shape, by the barks on the trunk, by the needle leaves and even by its smell. There are white lines under the leaves. When the cones are ripe in Autumn, they lose their barks. Pure fir forests in our country cover a total area of 213,652 ha. Of the 40 species existing in the world, the four which have expansions in our country are, Nordmann's Fir (A.Nordmanniana), Bornmullerian Fir (A. Bornmuelleriana E), Ida Mountain Fir (A. Equi-trojani E), Cilician Fir (A.cilicica E).
  8. 8. LADİN SPRUCE (Picea orientalis (L) Link.) Spruce, which spreads out mostly in the mild and cold reigons in the North semiphere, has got about 40 species and many varieties and sub-forms of these species. Though it looks like a fir from distance, it can be distinguished from the latter by its crown resembling a pyramid and by its downwards drooping branches. Trunk heights can reach up to 40- 50 m. Needle leaves are short with sharp point, and cross- sectional area is rectangular. Ripe cones do not lose their barks. The kind of spruce that forms pure or mixed forests on the high- altitude slopes of East Black-Sea mountains is Oriental Spruce (P. orientalis,). The pure spruce forests in our country cover a total area of 146,300 ha.
  9. 9. FISTIKÇAMI STONE PINE (Pinus pinea L.) Stone pine, a typical Mediterranean tree, forms forests especially in West and South Anatolia. Total pure stone pine forests in our country cover an area of 46,490 ha. Mature individuals have a trunk height of 15-20 m. It can easily be distinguished from other coniferous family by its crown, which is round in young and shapes like an umbrella in maturity. Its seeds are quite large and called as "pine nut" among people. They are important source of the income for the villagers of the West Anatolian shores.
  10. 10. ARDIÇ JUNIPER (Juniperus sp. L.) Juniper shows a large range of species from bushes to large trees, and can be found naturally in high mountainous areas of all regions in Turkey. Some types have small leaves like Cypress, some have pricking needle leaves. There are 1,100,492 ha pure juniper forest areas in our country. Important natural species are;
  11. 11. PORSUK YEW-TREE (Taxus baccata L.) Yew tree, which has a very large existence area in Europe, in Mediterranean Countries and in Caucasus, can also be seen in many regions from the North to the South in our country. It does not form large forests by itself. It exists alone or in small groups within spruce, fir, and beech forests. It can be seen sometimes as a small bush form or in a tree form with dense branches and round crown Its flexible wood used to be used in making bows in the prehistoric period. Its leaves and young shoots contain a poisonous alcaloide called "Taksol". However, red peel of its seed is not poisonous and, edible.
  12. 12. SERVİ CYPRESS Cupressus sempervirens L. One of the rare Cypress natural forests in the world is in the south of our contry. Cypress, together with stone pine, characterises Mediterranean's natural land scape. . It takes attraction from distances by virtue of its height (about 30-35 m), by its delicacy, which has been the subject of many folk songs, and by its darkgreen leaf texture. There are some 599 ha pure cypress forest areas in our country. It differs from other coniferous species by its small cones resembling a small ball, and by scale¬like leaves textured on top each other. Branched Cypress (C. Sempervirens var. horizantalis) is one of the sub-species that grow naturally in Turkey
  13. 13. MEŞE OAK (Quercus sp. L.)  Oak can develop and grow up almost in any part of our country with species. Varieties of species range from those which can have a trunk height of up to 25 m and a diameter of up to 2 m, with large crowns, to bushes of 3-5 m tall.Just like the form, the leaves may also vary with lobed, notched or flat sides. In our country there are 747,856 ha high oak forest areas; and 4,948,149 ha coppice areas. Cylindrical fruits called "oak acorn" are enclosed at the base by a cup. Oak trees are classified by the anatomy of its wood color mainly in 3 groups, red oaks, white oaks and evergreen oaks. There are 18 oak species, most important of which are;
  14. 14. GÜRGEN HORNBEAM (Carpinus sp. L.) Hornbeam spread over a large area including Thrace, Agean, Marmara, North and East Anatolian regions. Generally, it is found in mixed forests of north and south costs. In our country, there are 7,170 ha high hornbeam forest areas; and 1031 ha coppice areas. It has got a trunk with wavy surface. Its egg- shaped leaves have got teethed sides. The fruits, with approximately 1 cm length, have got sharp notches and hard sheels, and are covered with a fruit cover, having three balls and resembling a leaf. There are two types naturally grown in Turkey.
  15. 15. KIZILAĞAÇ ALDER (Alnus glutinosa Mill.)  Alder spreads over a large area in Thrace, Marmara, West and East Black-Sea regions as pure and mixed forests. It is a tree which can grow up to 20 m tall, with gray barks and widely apart branches. It is most common in temperate regions and in humid river valleys. In our country, there are 66,357 ha high alder forest areas; and 297 ha coppice areas. Its leaves, with 4-9 cm length and 3-7 cm width have got a reverse. It enriches the nitrogen content of the soil as it has got small nodes on its roots, which absorbs the nitrogen in the air. The common alder is widely distributed in Turkey, and main sub-species are;
  16. 16. AKCAAGAC MAPLE (Acer sp. L.) Maple takes its name from the light color of its wood. 9 types of maple grow in Turkey. As the shape of its fruits resemble a butterfly, it is called "butterfly trees" in some areas. Older ones may have a height between 10-30 m. Shapes of the leaves vary according to the type, and they generally have lobes. Flowers are yellowish green color and in the form of bunches. Some types growing in Turkey are,
  17. 17. DİŞBUDAK ASH (Fraxinus sp. L.) Ash spreads over in Thrace, Marmara, Agean and West and East Black-Sea regions. Its height varies between 10-30 m depending on the type, and it has got a smooth and plump trunk with a round crown. In our cuntry, there are 4,690 ha high ash tree forest areas and 743 ha coppice areas. Generally, it is found in waterabundant or deep soiled lands. Mature individuals have grap barks with deep cracks. Leaves, connected to a small stem, are elliptical in shape, and their sides have small teeth. White flowers are in the form of a bunch, and fruits are like narrow stripes.
  18. 18. KESTANE CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa Mill.) Chestnut spreads over in Marmara, and North Anatolian regions. Anatolian Chestnut, the only chestnut type cultivated in Turkey, is a large crowned tree with a height of 30 m. In our country, there are 25,278 ha high chestnut forest areas and 3,614 ha coppice areas. Trunk barks are smooth when the tree is young, but becomes cracked while getting older. Leaves are in lance - shaped and with rough teethed sides. While the flowers are an important source of honey, its fruit, the chestnut, has an economical value.
  19. 19. ÇINAR PLANE (Platanus orientalis L.) Plane tree grows up naturally near stream sides and river valleys. The kind mostly found in our country is the Oriental Plane (P. orientalis, W). Its height can sometimes reach up to 30 m, and trunk circumference up to 10 m. unlike other types, its barks drop slowly in small groups. It has got large leaves with hand-like lobes, and flowers forming ball-wise groups. The motherland of American Plane (P. occidentalis) and London Plane (P. acerifolia), which can be seen in our cities, is north America and Europe.
  20. 20. HUŞ BIRCH (Betula sp. L.) Birch can be found alone or mixed with other species of trees in higher lands of Northern Anatolia. It can stand up cold climate, and it has various types which can grow up to 10-20 m tall. Its branches becomes drooping as it gets older. The most striking property is its white barks. Its leaves are in shape of an egg or a triangle, and are usually sharply pointed with its teethed sides. There are 263 ha birch forest areas.
  21. 21. IHLAMUR LIME (Tilia sp. L.) Lime is found in West Black-Sea, Middle Taurus and Northern Anatolia regions. It is a dense- branched, large crowned tree, especially common in the forests in the north and west reigons. It can grow up to 20-30 m of height. The sizes of its leaves vary between 5- 10 cm, and the leaves have a long stem and a heart-like shape, with sides teethed. Its flower, when drooped in bundles, have got a yellowish color and characteristic smell. The flowers blooms very late (in June-July), and after being dried, drunk as plant tea.
  22. 22. SIĞLA Styrax (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) The only natural cultivation area of Styrax (amber smelling) tree in the world is the south-west of Turkey and Rhodes island. It forms pure forests or gets mixed with other trees in forests. There are 1348 ha pure styrax forests in our country. Styrax, which can grow up to 15-20 m height, is a thick branched and large crowned tree. It resembles to Plant tree at first glance. Its bark becomes darker, and has a deep crack view as it gets older. Its leaves are connected to branches with long stems, and they have generally 5 lobes. The balsam extracted from its trunk is used in cosmetics industry and in pharmacy.
  23. 23. KAVAK POPLAR (Populus sp. L.) Poplar grows up in almost all regions in Turkey. It shows variations in form, size, leaf structure, depending on the type. Cypress Poplar, which is widely cultivated in Turkey, has a pillar- like structure with its branches almost parallel to its trunk. Natural species found in Turkey have usually a large crown. The leaves have an oval, triangle or heart-like shape, with smooth or teethed sides.
  24. 24. thanks Mehmet YARDIMCI

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