GENERAL DIRECTORATE OF
MAIN TREE SPECIES
By: Mehmet YARDIMCI
SARIÇAMSARIÇAM SCOTCH PINESCOTCH PINE (Pinus sylvestris L. )(Pinus sylvestris L. )
Scotch Pine often forms forests of pure or mixed type, in higher mountainous areas of North
Anatolia; however, it also extends to inner and south regions in the form of small patches.
Pure Scotch Pine forests in Turkey covers an area of 757,426 ha.
It takes its name from the yellow color of its barks, separatable from the trunk in the forms
of slabs. It has a delicate trunk, a sharp crown and thin branches and grows up to 40 m of
height. Apart from its unique color of barks it can be distinguished from other pines at a first
glance, by properties such as the shortness of its thin leaves and its bluish green color.
trunk l leaves
eaves, shoots and cone
KAYINKAYIN BEECHBEECH Fagus sp. L.Fagus sp. L.
Beech, though mostly found in our northern regions, grows
up in Amanos mountains in the south, too. It forms pure
forests, or gets mixed with fir, pine, spruce and oak trees to
form forest areas. In our country, there are 66,357 ha high
beech forest areas; and 297 ha copies areas. It can grow up
to 40 m high tall, with straight and cylinder-like trunks. Its
leaves, with a length of 6-9 cm, have got an elliptical shape
with wave-like sides, and a very influential color in autumn.
Its fatty fruit is an important source of nutrient for the wild
animals in nature.
Naturally grown types in Turkey are;
KARAÇAM CRIMEAN PINE Pinus nigra Arnold.
Crimean Pine forms forests of pure or mixed type
in mountainous areas of all coastal regions, and
even penetrates towards to steppeland. Crimean
Pine forests in the forest area covers an area of
It can be distinguished from other pines by the
thickness of its trunk and its branches, by gray
barks with deep cracks and by dark green color of
needle type leaves. It can grow up to 30-35 m of
height. The 4 natural sub-species are; Anatolia
Black Pine (P. nigra var. pallasiana), Pyramid Black
Pine (P. nigra var. Pyramidata E,) and Black Pine
SEDİRSEDİR CEDARCEDAR (Cedrus libani A.Rich. )(Cedrus libani A.Rich. )
ıt grows naturally in East, West and Mid Taurus
Mountains, and it presents a small and limited
expansion to Erbaa and Niksar areas in the North.
The largest natural forests of Taurus cedar, one of
the four cedar types, in the world is in Turkey.
Cedar forests in Turkey covers an area of
109,440 ha. Their height can reach up to 40m. The
crown part, once resembling a pyramid in youth,
changes by time and becomes low and flattened.
Needle leaves are short, sharp and pricking, and
several of them are located on a small shoot
branch together in bundles. Cones resembling an
egg or a barrel disintegrates when it is ripe, just
like firs, and the axis remain on the shoot
KIZILÇAM CALABRIAN PINE (Pinus brutia Ten.)
The most abundant spread of Calabrian Pine in the
world is in Turkey. Although it mainly forms forests
in Mediterranean and Agean Regions, it presents a
local spread in West and Middle Black Sea Regions.
Pure Calabrian Pine forests in our country cover an
area of 3,729,866 ha. Calabrian Pine may grow up in
altitudes of 1,000-2,000 m above sea level; It is not
shade tolerant and a fastgrowing pine type. It can
have a height of up to 20 m. It takes its name from
its thick and dark red young shoots.
Calabrian Pine resembles in general Jarusalem
Pine (Pinus halepensis,), which develops in
GÖKNAR FIR (Abies sp. Mill.)
Fir with a trunk height of up to 40
m, can easily be distinguished
from other coniferous family by its
unique shape, by the barks on the
trunk, by the needle leaves and
even by its smell. There are white
lines under the leaves. When the
cones are ripe in Autumn, they
lose their barks.
Pure fir forests in our country cover a total area of 213,652
ha. Of the 40 species existing in the world, the four which
have expansions in our country are,
Nordmann's Fir (A.Nordmanniana),
Bornmullerian Fir (A. Bornmuelleriana E),
Ida Mountain Fir (A. Equi-trojani E),
Cilician Fir (A.cilicica E).
LADİN SPRUCE (Picea orientalis (L) Link.)
Spruce, which spreads out mostly
in the mild and cold reigons in the
North semiphere, has got about
40 species and many varieties
and sub-forms of these species.
Though it looks like a fir from
distance, it can be distinguished
from the latter by its crown
resembling a pyramid and by its
downwards drooping branches.
Trunk heights can reach up to 40-
50 m. Needle leaves are short
with sharp point, and cross-
sectional area is rectangular.
Ripe cones do not lose
their barks. The kind of
spruce that forms pure or
mixed forests on the high-
altitude slopes of East
Black-Sea mountains is
Oriental Spruce (P.
orientalis,). The pure spruce
forests in our country cover
a total area of 146,300 ha.
FISTIKÇAMI STONE PINE (Pinus pinea L.)
Stone pine, a typical Mediterranean
tree, forms forests especially in West
and South Anatolia. Total pure stone
pine forests in our country cover an
area of 46,490 ha. Mature individuals
have a trunk height of 15-20 m.
It can easily be distinguished from
other coniferous family by its crown,
which is round in young and shapes
like an umbrella in maturity. Its seeds
are quite large and called as "pine nut"
among people. They are important
source of the income for the villagers
of the West Anatolian shores.
ARDIÇ JUNIPER (Juniperus sp. L.)
Juniper shows a large range of species from
bushes to large trees, and can be found naturally
in high mountainous areas of all regions in
Turkey. Some types have small leaves like
Cypress, some have pricking needle leaves.
There are 1,100,492 ha pure juniper forest areas
in our country. Important natural species are;
PORSUK YEW-TREE (Taxus baccata L.)
Yew tree, which has a very large existence area in
Europe, in Mediterranean Countries and in
Caucasus, can also be seen in many regions from
the North to the South in our country. It does not
form large forests by itself. It exists alone or in
small groups within spruce, fir, and beech forests.
It can be seen sometimes as a small bush form or
in a tree form with dense branches and round
Its flexible wood used to be used in making
bows in the prehistoric period. Its leaves and
young shoots contain a poisonous alcaloide
called "Taksol". However, red peel of its seed is
not poisonous and, edible.
SERVİ CYPRESS Cupressus sempervirens L.
One of the rare Cypress natural
forests in the world is in the south of
our contry. Cypress, together with
stone pine, characterises
Mediterranean's natural land scape. .
It takes attraction from distances by virtue of its height
(about 30-35 m), by its delicacy, which has been the subject
of many folk songs, and by its darkgreen leaf texture. There
are some 599 ha pure cypress forest areas in our country. It
differs from other coniferous species by its small cones
resembling a small ball, and by scale¬like leaves textured
on top each other. Branched Cypress (C. Sempervirens var.
horizantalis) is one of the sub-species that grow naturally in
MEŞE OAK (Quercus sp. L.)
Oak can develop and grow up almost in any part of our
country with species. Varieties of species range from
those which can have a trunk height of up to 25 m and a
diameter of up to 2 m, with large crowns, to bushes of 3-5
m tall.Just like the form, the leaves may also vary with
lobed, notched or flat sides. In our country there are
747,856 ha high oak forest areas; and 4,948,149 ha
Cylindrical fruits called "oak acorn" are enclosed at the
base by a cup. Oak trees are classified by the anatomy of
its wood color mainly in 3 groups, red oaks, white oaks
and evergreen oaks. There are 18 oak species,
most important of which are;
GÜRGEN HORNBEAM (Carpinus sp. L.)
Hornbeam spread over a large area including Thrace, Agean,
Marmara, North and East Anatolian regions. Generally, it is
found in mixed forests of north and south costs. In our country,
there are 7,170 ha high hornbeam forest areas; and 1031 ha
coppice areas. It has got a trunk with wavy surface. Its egg-
shaped leaves have got teethed sides. The fruits, with
approximately 1 cm length, have got sharp notches and hard
sheels, and are covered with a fruit cover, having three balls
and resembling a leaf.
There are two types naturally grown in Turkey.
KIZILAĞAÇ ALDER (Alnus glutinosa Mill.)
Alder spreads over a large area in Thrace, Marmara, West
and East Black-Sea regions as pure and mixed forests. It is a
tree which can grow up to 20 m tall, with gray barks and
widely apart branches. It is most common in temperate
regions and in humid river valleys. In our country, there are
66,357 ha high alder forest areas; and 297 ha coppice areas.
Its leaves, with 4-9 cm length and 3-7 cm width have got a
reverse. It enriches the nitrogen content of the soil as it has
got small nodes on its roots, which absorbs the nitrogen in
The common alder is widely distributed in Turkey, and
main sub-species are;
AKCAAGAC MAPLE (Acer sp. L.)
Maple takes its name from the light
color of its wood. 9 types of maple
grow in Turkey. As the shape of its
fruits resemble a butterfly, it is
called "butterfly trees" in some
areas. Older ones may have a
height between 10-30 m. Shapes
of the leaves vary according to the
type, and they generally have
lobes. Flowers are yellowish green
color and in the form of bunches.
Some types growing in Turkey
DİŞBUDAK ASH (Fraxinus sp. L.)
Ash spreads over in Thrace, Marmara, Agean and West
and East Black-Sea regions. Its height varies between
10-30 m depending on the type, and it has got a smooth
and plump trunk with a round crown. In our cuntry, there
are 4,690 ha high ash tree forest areas and 743 ha
coppice areas. Generally, it is found in waterabundant or
deep soiled lands. Mature individuals have grap barks
with deep cracks. Leaves, connected to a small stem,
are elliptical in shape, and their sides have small teeth.
White flowers are in the form of a bunch, and fruits are
like narrow stripes.
KESTANE CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa Mill.)
Chestnut spreads over in Marmara,
and North Anatolian regions.
Anatolian Chestnut, the only
chestnut type cultivated in Turkey,
is a large crowned tree with a
height of 30 m. In our country,
there are 25,278 ha high chestnut
forest areas and 3,614 ha coppice
Trunk barks are smooth when the tree is young, but
becomes cracked while getting older. Leaves are in lance
- shaped and with rough teethed sides. While the flowers
are an important source of honey, its fruit, the chestnut,
has an economical value.
ÇINAR PLANE (Platanus orientalis L.)
Plane tree grows up naturally
near stream sides and river
valleys. The kind mostly found in
our country is the Oriental Plane
(P. orientalis, W). Its height can
sometimes reach up to 30 m, and
trunk circumference up to 10 m.
unlike other types, its barks drop
slowly in small groups. It has got
large leaves with hand-like lobes,
and flowers forming ball-wise
groups. The motherland of
American Plane (P. occidentalis)
and London Plane (P. acerifolia),
which can be seen in our cities, is
north America and Europe.
HUŞ BIRCH (Betula sp. L.)
Birch can be found alone or mixed with other species of
trees in higher lands of Northern Anatolia. It can stand up cold
climate, and it has various types which can grow up to 10-20
m tall. Its branches becomes drooping as it gets older. The
most striking property is its white barks. Its leaves are in
shape of an egg or a triangle, and are usually sharply pointed
with its teethed sides. There are 263 ha birch forest areas.
IHLAMUR LIME (Tilia sp. L.)
Lime is found in West Black-Sea,
Middle Taurus and Northern
Anatolia regions. It is a dense-
branched, large crowned tree,
especially common in the forests in
the north and west reigons. It can
grow up to 20-30 m of height. The
sizes of its leaves vary between 5-
10 cm, and the leaves have a long
stem and a heart-like shape, with
sides teethed. Its flower, when
drooped in bundles, have got a
yellowish color and characteristic
smell. The flowers blooms very late
(in June-July), and after being dried,
drunk as plant tea.
SIĞLA Styrax (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.)
The only natural cultivation area
of Styrax (amber smelling) tree in
the world is the south-west of
Turkey and Rhodes island. It
forms pure forests or gets mixed
with other trees in forests. There
are 1348 ha pure styrax forests in
our country. Styrax, which can
grow up to 15-20 m height, is a
thick branched and large crowned
It resembles to Plant tree at first glance. Its bark becomes
darker, and has a deep crack view as it gets older. Its leaves
are connected to branches with long stems, and they have
generally 5 lobes. The balsam extracted from its trunk is
used in cosmetics industry and in pharmacy.
KAVAK POPLAR (Populus sp. L.)
Poplar grows up in almost all
regions in Turkey. It shows
variations in form, size, leaf
structure, depending on the type.
Cypress Poplar, which is widely
cultivated in Turkey, has a pillar-
like structure with its branches
almost parallel to its trunk. Natural
species found in Turkey have
usually a large crown. The leaves
have an oval, triangle or heart-like
shape, with smooth or teethed