The Lithuanian litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų ) is the currency of Lithuania. It is divided into 100 centų (genitive case; singular centas , nominative plural centai ). (1 Eu = 3,45 Lt).
Ventė Cape (Lithuanian: Ventės ragas ; sometimes referred to as Ventė Horn or Ventė Peninsula) is a headland in Nemunas Delta. It is known as a rest place for many birds during their migrations, particularly the autumn migration. One of the first bird ringing stations in Europe, still in operation, was opened here by Tadas Ivanauskas in 1929.
The history of Lithuania dates back to at least 1009, the first recorded written use of the term.
In the autumn or at the end of 1008 Bruno and eighteen companions set out to found a mission among the Prussians; they succeeded in converting Netimer, a "king of Lithuanians", and then traveled to the east, heading very likely towards Yotvingia. Yotvingia was a Prussian region, then subordinate to Kievan Rus (since 983), that intersected the borders of what was then Prussia, Kievan Rus and the Duchy of Lithuania. Lithuanians later conquered neighboring lands, finally establishing the Kingdom of Lithuania in the 13th century.
The first people arrived on the territory of modern Lithuania in the 10th millennium BC after the glaciers had retreated and the last glacial period had ended. According to historian Marija Gimbutas, the people came from two directions: from the Jutland Peninsula and from present-day Poland. They brought two different cultures as evidenced by the tools they used. They were traveling hunters and did not form more stable settlements.
Crafts and trade also started to form at this time. Proto-Indo-Europeans came around 2500 BC, and the identity of the Balts formed about 2000 BC.
The first Lithuanians were a branch of an ancient group known as the Balts, whose tribes also included the original Prussian and Latvian people. The Baltic tribes were not directly influenced by the Roman Empire, but the tribes did maintain close trade contacts (see Amber Road).
In the early 13th century two German religious orders, the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, conquered much of the area that is now Estonia and Latvia, in addition to parts of Lithuania. In response, a number of small Baltic tribal groups united under the rule of Mindaugas and soundly defeated the Livonians at Šiauliai in the Battle of Saule in 1236. In 1250 Mindaugas signed an agreement with the Teutonic Order and in 1251 was baptized in their presence by the bishop of Chełmno (in Chełmno Land.) On 6 July 1253, Mindaugas was crowned as King of Lithuania and state was proclaimed as Kingdom of Lithuania.
The Christianization of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos krikštas ) was the event that took place in 1387, initiated by the Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Jogaila with his cousin Vytautas the Great, that signified the official adoption of Christianity by Lithuanians, one of the last pagan nations in Europe. This event ended one of the most complicated and lengthiest processes of Christianization in history.
Fresco from Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune in Strasbourg, portraying 15 European states' path towards Christianity. Lithuania presented as the last figure.
Vytautas (Lithuanian: Vytautas Didysis (help·info) , Belarusian: Вітаўт , Polish: Witold Kiejstutowicz ; styled "the Great" from the 15th century onwards; c. 1350 – October 27, 1430) was one of the most famous rulers of medieval Lithuania. Vytautas was the ruler (1392–1430) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians. He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382) and the Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), postulated king of Hussites.
In modern Lithuania, Vytautas is revered as a national hero and was an important figure in the national rebirth in the 19th century. Vytautas is a popular male given name in Lithuania. Vytautas Magnus University was named after him. Monuments in his honour were built in many towns in the independent Republic of Lithuania during the interwar period, 1918–1939.
In the 16th century, when many educated Lithuanians came back from studies abroad, Grand Duchy of Lithuania was boiling with active cultural life, sometimes referred to as Lithuanian Renaissance (not to be confused with Lithuanian National Revival in 19th century).
At the time Italian architecture was introduced in Lithuanian cities, and Lithuanian literature written in Latin flourished. Also at the time emerged first handwritten and printed texts in the Lithuanian language, and began the formation of written Lithuanian language. The process was led by Lithuanian scholars Abraomas Kulvietis, Stanislovas Rapalionis, Martynas Mažvydas and Mikalojus Daukša.
With the Union of Lublin of 1569 Poland and Lithuania formed a new state: the Republic of Both Nations (commonly known as Poland-Lithuania or the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; Polish: Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodow , Lithuanian: Abiejų Tautų Respublika ).
Following the union, Polonization started to take place in Lithuanian public life, and took another 140 years to become a major factor. Under the influence of the Lithuanian upper classes and the church, who began to use Polish language more frequently[ who? ]. In 1696 Polish became an official language, replacing the previous Lithuanian language and Ruthenian languages.
Despite the Union and integration of the two countries, for nearly two centuries Lithuania continued to exist as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, retaining separate laws as well as an Army and a Treasury.
Following the partitions of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Empire controlled the majority of Lithuania, including Vilnius, which made up a part of Vilna Governorate.
In the early years of the 19th century, there were signs that Lithuania might be allowed some separate recognition by the Empire, however this never happened.
Outline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with its major subdivisions as of 1619, superimposed on present-day national borders Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Prussia, Polish fief Grand Duchy of Lithuania Duchy of Courland, joint fief Livonia
The Council adopted the Act of Independence of Lithuania on February 16, 1918. It declared that Lithuania is an independent republic, organized based on democratic principles. Germans, still present in the country, did not support such a declaration and hindered any attempts to establish the proclaimed independence.
In August 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, with secret clauses assigning spheres of influence in the area of the Baltic Sea. Lithuania, initially assigned to the German sphere of influence, was transferred to the Soviets in secret additional protocols of the German–Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty of September 28, 1939. The city of Vilnius was occupied by the Red Army during the invasion of Poland. Soviet-proposed Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Pact transferred one fifth of the Vilnius Region (including Vilnius) to Lithuanian in exchange for stationing 20,000 Soviet troops within Lithuania.
In early 1990, Sąjūdis-backed candidates won the elections to the Lithuanian Supreme Soviet. On March 11, 1990, the Supreme Soviet proclaimed the re-establishment of Lithuanian independence. Lithuania was the first of the Soviet republics to declare independence.
Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania with signatures of the delegates
Povilas Vanagas ( 1970) and Margarita Drobiazko
They are the 2000 World bronze medalists, three-time Grand Prix Final bronze medalists, two-time European bronze medalists (2000, 2006), 1999 Skate Canada champions and competed in five Winter Olympics, finishing as high as 5th.
professional basketball player and is currently playing for Fenerbahçe Ülker
Steponas Darius (1896-1933) Stasys Girėnas (1893-1933)
On July 15, 1933, along with Steponas Darius, he attempted a nonstop flight from New York City, to Kaunas, Lithuania - a total of 7,186 km, in a Bellanca CH-300 Pacemaker airplane named Lituanica . After successfully crossing the Atlantic Ocean in 37 hours and 11 minutes, their plane crashed on July 17, 0:36 AM (Berlin Time) by the village of Kuhdamm, near Soldin, Germany (now Pszczelnik, Myślibórz County, Poland). Difficult weather conditions combined with engine defects were the findings of the official investigation. Both aviators were killed in the crash. They had covered a distance of 3,984 miles (6,411 kilometers) without landing, only 650 km short of their final destination.