Great Union Day ( Romanian : Ziua Marii Uniri , also called Unification ) occurring on December 1, is the national holiday of Romania . It commemorates the assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia , which declared the Union of Transylvania with Romania .This holiday was set after the 1989 Romanian Revolution and it marks the unification of Transylvania , but also of the provinces of Bessarabia and Bukovina with the Romanian Kingdom , in 1918. Prior to 1918, the national holiday of Romania was set to be on May 10, which had a double meaning: it was the day on which Carol I set foot on the Romanian soil (in 1866), and it was the day on which the prince ratified the Declaration of Independence (from the Ottoman Empire ) in 1877. In Communist Romania , the date of the national holiday was set to August 23 to mark the 1944 overthrow of the pro- fascist government of Marshal Ion Antonescu .
THE UNION FROM 1600 The “Dacian plan”-the reunion of all Romanians under a unique authority -represented the only way to state our autonomy over all expansion plans of all interested powers to dominate us, from the Ottoman Empire, Poland or Austrian Empire(Habsburgs Empire). Mihai Viteazul (Michael the Brave) tried to unite , for the first time , the Romanian territories in 1600. His attempt was for a short while because he was killed in 1601 and his dream ended. The Romanians’ dream THE UNION FROM 1859 This Union was accomplished in January 24, 1859 when Moldavia and Wallachia (Tara Romaneasca) united under the authority of Alexandru Ioan Cuza . During Cuza’s reign, there was established the foundation of the modern Romania and there were adopted reforms (1863-1865) which led to the diversity of the institutions and consolidated our autonomy in the relations with the Great Powers.
Premisses that led to the GREAT UNION – 1918 March 5 - in Buftea(small town close to Bucharest) was signed the Preliminary Treaty between Romania and Central Powers. On this ground, on March 9th, began the negotiations for the settlement of the peace after World War I. March 27 - the Council of the Country from Chisinau(capital of Basarabia) decided the union of Bessarabia with Romania. April 24 -Bucharest-the Peace Treaty between Romania on one side and Germany, Austria-Hungry, Bulgaria and Turkey on the other side. Romania was forced to cede Dobrudja and to sign unprofitable economical treaties.
September 29 - the Executive Committee of the Romanian National Party adopted, unanimously, the declaration of Vasile Goldis that stated the recognition of that Committee as interim leading authority. October 3 - the Proclamation of the King Carol I of Habsburg “ To my faithful people” concerning the reorganization of Austria-Hungary in six independent states(Austrian, Aungarian, Czech, Jugoslavian, Polish and Ucranian). Octomber 9 - the Declaration of response to the King Carol I ‘s Proclamation made by the”Volunteer Corps from Transylvania snd Bukovina” in which they proclaim the union of their territories with the Romanian Kingdom. October 12 - the Romanian National Party from Transylvania adopted the “ Declaration of self-determination” writen out by Vasile Goldis , “ on the strenght of the right of every nation to dispose of itself”.
Resolution of the National Assembly in Alba Iulia- December 1, 1918 The GREAT UNION- December 1, 1918 - act of will of the Romanian nation-
Alba Iulia National Assembly On December 1,1918 the National Assembly of Romanians of Transylvania and Hungary , consisting of 1,228 elected representatives of the Romanians in Transylvania , Banat , Crişana and Maramureş , convened in Alba Iulia and decreed (by unanimous vote) : “ the unification of those Romanians and of all the territories inhabited by them with Romania. ” The Resolution voted by the National Assembly stipulated also the "fundamental principles for the foundation of the new Romanian State". It was conditional, and demanded the preservation of a democratic local autonomy, the equality of all nationalities and religions. The Assembly also formed from 200 of its members, plus 50 co-opted members a High National Romanian Council of Transylvania , the new permanent parliament of Transylvania.
The next day, on December 2, 1918 the High Romanian Council of Transylvania formed a government under the name of Directory Council of Transylvania(Consiliul Dirigent al Transilvaniei) headed by Iuliu Maniu. On December 11, 1918, King Ferdinand signed the law regarding the Union of Transylvania, Banat, Crisana, Satmar and Maramures with the Old Kingdom of Romania, decreeing that: “ The lands named in the resolution of the Alba – Iulia National Assembly on the 1st of December are and remain forever united with the Kingdom of Romania”