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Lecture on argumentation and means of persuasion with some fun exercises.

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  • What happened?Can we believe Queenie?PictureHere testimonyAutopsy report
  • Claimsandevidence

    1. 1. Linking Compelling Claims, to Strong Evidence<br />Paul M. Rogers PhD<br />English 101<br />
    2. 2. Persuasive Communication <br />Rhetoric: The ability in any particular case to see all the available means of persuasion (Aristotle, The Rhetoric). <br />Being persuasive is an ability<br />It can be developed through study and practice<br />Will give you more options to accomplish your communication goals<br />There are multiple means of persuasion<br />But, first be clear about your purpose<br />Know your audience<br />Use ethos, logos, and pathos<br />
    3. 3. Three Means of Persuasion: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos<br />It Logos(Text/Message/Medium)<br />Purpose<br />Kairos<br />(Urgent and Non-Trivial)<br />I Ethos (Writer/Speaker)<br />You Pathos (Audience(s))<br />
    4. 4. In College Writing You Must Develop Your Logical Argumentation Abilities<br />LOGOS = LOGICAL ARGUMENTATION<br />Purpose<br />Kairos<br />(Urgent and Non-Trivial)<br />I Ethos (Writer)<br />You Pathos (Audience(s))<br />
    5. 5. Standard Halogen<br />Xenon<br />Let’s look at some data: Which of the images shows more light on the road and surrounding area?<br />SilverStar Ultra TM<br />
    6. 6. Standard Halogen<br />Xenon<br />Halogen Headlight<br />SilverStar Ultra TM<br />Xenon Headlight<br />
    7. 7. Standard Halogen<br />Xenon<br />Xenon headlights illuminate signs better than halogen headlights do<br />Halogen Headlight<br />SilverStar Ultra TM<br />Xenon Headlight<br />[Sylvania, 2008 ]<br />
    8. 8. My Papa's Waltz by Theodore Roethke<br /> <br />The whiskey on your breath<br />Could make a small boy dizzy;<br />But I hung on like death:<br />Such waltzing was not easy.<br />We romped until the pans<br />Slid from the kitchen shelf;<br />My mother's countenance<br />Could not unfrown itself.<br /> <br />The hand that held my wrist<br />Was battered on one knuckle;<br />At every step you missed<br />My right ear scraped a buckle.<br /> <br />You beat time on my head<br />With a palm caked hard by dirt,<br />Then waltzed me off to bed<br />Still clinging to your shirt.<br />
    9. 9. 4 Steps <br />Write a brief one or two sentence summary of this poem<br />Make an assertion: What is this poem about?<br />What evidence do you have to back up your claim? <br />What is your strongest evidence?<br />Link your claims and evidence together in a single statement<br />
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    12. 12. Is Queenie Lying?<br />Your thesis is the response to this question.<br />Identify all of the evidence you can find to support your claim<br />Rank your evidence from strongest to weakest<br />
    13. 13. Aristotle’s Rhetoric provides a solid foundation for practicing, learning, and teaching communication, including writing<br />LOGICAL ARGUMENTATION<br />Purpose<br />Kairos<br />(Urgent and Non-Trivial)<br />I Ethos (Speaker)<br />You Pathos (Audience)<br />
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    15. 15. A Process for Creating Compelling Arguments<br />Start with data and data analysis<br />Form your questions<br />Make a claim or a thesis that is worth arguing<br />Make explicit the connections between the data and the claims<br />
    16. 16. Qualifications/Hedge Words<br />Possible<br />Conceivable <br />Could<br />May <br />Might <br />Perhaps<br />Almost certain<br />Virtually certain <br />All but certain <br />Highly probable <br />Highly likely <br />Odds [or chances] overwhelming<br />Probable <br />Likely <br />We believe <br />We estimate<br />50-50 chances <br />About even <br />Chances a little better [or less] than even <br />Improbable <br />Unlikely<br />Probably not<br />We believe that . . . not <br />We estimate that . . . not <br />We doubt, doubtful<br />Almost certainly<br />Virtually impossible <br />Almost impossible <br />Some slight chance <br />Highly doubtful<br />
    17. 17. Standard Halogen<br />Xenon<br />Arguments that links claims and evidence are more persuasive than those that don’t!<br />Halogen Headlight<br />SilverStar Ultra TM<br />Xenon Headlight<br />[Sylvania, 2008 ]<br />
    18. 18. Exchange your change maker paper with a partner<br />Treat the paper as data <br />Is this individual making a significant and positive impact in the world?<br />Can you make a case based on the evidence in the paper.<br />Using their paper as data, make an argument that links together your claims and their most compelling evidence.<br />
    19. 19. Three Means of Persuasion: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos<br />It Logos(Text)<br />Purpose<br />Kairos<br />(Urgent and Non-Trivial)<br />I Ethos (Speaker)<br />You Pathos (Audience)<br />
    20. 20. Purpose<br />INFORM: What do I want my audience to know?<br />ENTERTAIN: What do I want my audience to feel?<br />PERSUADE: What do I want my audience to do?<br />
    21. 21. Writing as discovery<br />Our ideas change as we write<br />We gain content knowledge<br />Our purpose can become clearer as we write and revise<br />Multiple purposes in one piece of writing, but a dominant one will probably emerge<br />
    22. 22. Means of Persuasion<br />Ethos<br />Logos<br />Pathos<br />
    23. 23. Ethos = credibility<br />What counts as credibility differs among groups of people <br />O'Keefe (1990) defined credibility as "judgments made by a perceiver concerning the believability of a communicator" <br />In other words “credibility is in the eye of the beholder” <br />
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    30. 30. The two most important elements in establishing credibility are expertise and trustworthiness <br />
    31. 31. Credibility is subject to change over time <br />
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    35. 35. What will compromise your credibility in the short and long term?<br />
    36. 36. A single spelling error on a resume of cover letter could seriously undermine your competitiveness in applying for an internship or job. <br />
    37. 37. Two kinds of credibility<br />
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    39. 39. Extrinsic: what people know about you before they read your work or hear you speak<br />
    40. 40. Intrinsic: what we do within a communication setting through our actions. <br />
    41. 41. Putting ethos to work in your writing<br />Know your material<br />Cite evidence (Reinard, J.C. (1988) Human Communication Research, 15,3-59).<br />Share your interest, experience, and expertise<br />Have your reader’s best interest in mind<br />Identify similarities with your reader<br />If you lack extrinsic credibility increase your reader’s involvement with the topic, which will help focus them on the topic more than the messenger (Petty and Cacioppa, 1986).<br />