Social PartnershipModels: Challenges toIR ActorsDean Jorge V. SibalUP SOLAIR
Rationale for Employer-Labor      Social Partnership   Labor intensive operations shifted to less    developed countries ...
The Emerging New IR Models   Governments, employers and labor groups    have utilized various interventions to    counter...
HRD employee participation as      coping up mechanisms   At the firm level, Kuruvilla and Erickson    (2000) spoke of an...
Philippine adjustment measures   Domestic firms cope with structural,    social, and economic changes of    globalization...
Definition of Social Partnerships1. Proactive cooperation, conflict  resolution & problem-solving among  employers, employ...
Characteristics of SocialPartnerships1. Not Legalistic, prioritize use of  behavioral processes2. Goals are industry produ...
Characteristics of SocialPartnerships3. Promotes theory Y or organized  relations with employees through  unions & other l...
Mechanisms for employee    participation in decision makingJ. Gordon   Autocratic   Participa-    Democratic    Laissez-  ...
Basic Model of Social Partnership
Social Partnership Mechanismsin the Philippines1. Suggestion scheme, meeting, task force2. Consultation- OSH Committee, SD...
worker participation    in decision makingPractices                           Filipino   Foreign   w/        Union-   Non-...
LMC at Ebara Benguet, Inc   Fostering principles of social partnership    and strategic management (dubbed as    “Partner...
LMC at Ebara Benguet, Inc- Stages of ImplementationI – Series of dialogues between consultants,  management and laborII – ...
LMC at Ebara Benguet, Inc-    Evaluation of Results   Measured production volume, rejection rate by    weight, and profit...
ESOP effects on employeecommitment and productivity   Employees in 4 domestic firms exhibited    higher organizational co...
Top Phil. TelecommunicationsCompany   Guanzon (2006) assessed the readiness of a    top Philippine telecommunications com...
Top Phil. TelecommunicationsCompany   The focus of the study was on    compliance with international standards    of chil...
Top Phil. TelecommunicationsCompany   Guanzon concluded that the Philippine    telecommunications company obtained    a h...
The transformation of industrialrelations at PAL   PAL’s adversarial relations with its 3    unions led by the PAL Employ...
The transformation of industrial    relations at PAL   PAL’s reopening in September 1998 under    State receivership was ...
The transformation of industrialrelations at PAL   Today, after less than 9 years of    employer-union partnership, PAL i...
Labor-Management Cooperation Practices    in Unionized Workplaces  a. Central Azucarera Don Pedro, Inc.,      Nasugbu, Bat...
Employee       CB    Employee Co-           EE         Consultation         management             Rep.Compa QC   LMC     ...
Central AzucareraDon Pedro, Inc. (CADPI)   Started with very autocratic leadership,    labor-management relationship was ...
CADPI   The scope of LMC at CADPI was expanded    to low-cost subdivision and housing project,    skills training, LMC Da...
CADPI   one of the best model of employer-labor social    partnership.   efficient sugar milling and refining plants and...
Mabuhay Vinyl Corporation   LMC is called Industrial Peace Council (IPC)    after it became part of the company’s    stra...
Mabuhay Vinyl Corporation   Team building and collective bargaining    negotiations and implementation are part of    IPC...
Energizer Philippines   LMC started in 2000 with pro-active    leadership: team-based culture; open    communications to ...
Energizer Philippines   No strikes and no lock-outs   Zero grievance records since 2000   5 days collective bargaining ...
Del Monte Philippines   LMC started as a CBA provision in 1983 but    did not become active.   In 2001, the LMC was re-l...
Del Monte Philippines   Now, livelihood and income generating    projects are concerns of LMC   Involved in community re...
Practices in Non-Manufacturing   Unionized Workplaces     Bank of Philippine Islands, Makati City     GMA Network, Inc.,...
Employee       CB    Employee Co-         EE         Consultation         management           Rep.Com      QC     LMC    ...
Bank of Philippine Islands   Partners with 24 rank-and-file unions    nationwide   Mechanisms used for industrial peace ...
GMA Network, Inc.   3 decades of employer and union    partnership operating on mutual trust    and cooperation
GMA Network, Inc.   Jointly decides and consults through:    collective bargaining; organization of    company events; th...
Manila Electric Company   Transformed hostile and legalistic union-    management relations to an HRD-focused    employer...
Manila Electric Company   MERALCO has reinforced employer-union    cooperation in other HR productivity    interventions ...
University of the PhilippinesGood practices in social partnership in governance namely: 1) voluntary austerity program; 2)...
University of the PhilippinesThe 11 regents include the University  President as Co-Chairperson: 7 seats are allotted to ...
Practices in Unionized Workplaces   in the Regions     Holcim Philippines, Inc., La Union     Holcim Philippines, Inc., ...
Employee       CB    Employee Co-         EE        Consultation         management           Rep.Com    QC   LMC        C...
Holcim Philippines, Inc.   LMC has developed good relations with the    local community, and improved labor-    managemen...
Philippine Associated Smeltingand Refining CorporationThe successful social partnership brought  improvements in the workp...
Practices in Non-Unionized   Workplaces     Ford Motor Company Philippines, Sta.      Rosa, Laguna     Moog Control Corp...
Employee       CB    Employee Co-         EE       Consultation         management           Rep.Com    QC     LMC     CBA...
Ford Motor Company Philippines   Social partnership in Ford is inculcated    through shared corporate values and open    ...
Moog Controls Corporation   No time clocks but the employees report    accurately their performances.   Profit sharing p...
United Laboratories, Inc.   Employees Council (EC) was set up in    1959 to serve as the voice of the    employees and a ...
Challenges to the IR Actors   The country has numerous successful    practices and experiences on employer-    labor soci...
Challenges to the IR Actors   In the meantime, the problems of    enterprises and labor in preserving and    expanding wo...
Benefits from social partnership   Increased productivity;   Industrial peace- no strike and no lock out,    minimal to ...
Policy Recommendations1.   While        social      employer-labor     partnership is fast being implemented     in large ...
Policy Recommendations2. Employer initiatives in promoting good   practices of corporate social responsibility   (CSR) sho...
Policy Recommendations3. The various social accords among employers,    trade unions and government like the    “Social Ac...
Policy Recommendations4.    The operations of the Tripartite     Industrial Peace Council (TIPC) should     be expanded to...
Policy Recommendations5.    Trade union organizing and collective     bargaining through RA No. 9481 should be     support...
Policy Recommendations6. The campaign of the IR actors for   patronage of locally-made products   following Philippine qua...
Policy Recommendations7. The voluntary adoption of ESOP in   Philippine enterprises can be refiled at   the Philippine Con...
Policy Recommendations8.     Employee representation in the     governing boards of government     corporations like those...
Policy Recommendations10. Voluntary compliance with the Philippine   Quality Award Act (under RA No. 9013)   should be giv...
Policy Recommendations10. Philippine retailers like SM should also   champion compliance to all Philippine   standards lik...
Policy Recommendations11.       The Securities and Exchange      Commission should encourage elected      employee represe...
Policy Recommendations12. Social partnership should also be expanded    among principals and subcontactors and    supplier...
In closing, Pope John XXIII(1961)   “…the relations between the employers and    directors on the one hand, and the emplo...
Challenges of firm adjustments  social partnerships
Challenges of firm adjustments  social partnerships
Challenges of firm adjustments  social partnerships
Challenges of firm adjustments  social partnerships
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Challenges of firm adjustments social partnerships

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Features case studies of labor-management social partnership in unionized and non-unionized setting in the Philippines.

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Challenges of firm adjustments social partnerships

  1. 1. Social PartnershipModels: Challenges toIR ActorsDean Jorge V. SibalUP SOLAIR
  2. 2. Rationale for Employer-Labor Social Partnership Labor intensive operations shifted to less developed countries due to lower labor cost. Contractualization and the race to the bottom wage rates have been very detrimental to labor. The result is jobless growth and more poverty (ILO, UNDP, ADB and the WB)
  3. 3. The Emerging New IR Models Governments, employers and labor groups have utilized various interventions to counter the negative effects of labor flexibilization. These IR interventions use transformational methods that enhance competitiveness and productivity side-by-side with decent work through more participative rather than adversarial employer-labor relationship.
  4. 4. HRD employee participation as coping up mechanisms At the firm level, Kuruvilla and Erickson (2000) spoke of another pathway where countries and industries can tread to enhance quality and productivity. This is a functional form of flexibility that is HRD-driven employer-labor social partnership. The focus is on employee participation and skill formation.
  5. 5. Philippine adjustment measures Domestic firms cope with structural, social, and economic changes of globalization thru:  investment in HRD (53.3%); and  improvement in quality of products and services (79.8%)(1999 DOLE Industrial Relations at the Workplace Survey)
  6. 6. Definition of Social Partnerships1. Proactive cooperation, conflict resolution & problem-solving among employers, employees & other stakeholders2. Outputs & outcomes are mutually beneficial to the social actors in terms of economic, social & political empowerment
  7. 7. Characteristics of SocialPartnerships1. Not Legalistic, prioritize use of behavioral processes2. Goals are industry productivity & decent work for competitiveness
  8. 8. Characteristics of SocialPartnerships3. Promotes theory Y or organized relations with employees through unions & other labor organizations. Employee participation is also known as employee involvement or worker participation in management
  9. 9. Mechanisms for employee participation in decision makingJ. Gordon Autocratic Participa- Democratic Laissez- tive FaireIR/HRM Unilateral Consulta- Work CommitteePractices Decision tive, Councils, System Making/ Bi/Triparti Co- Unitary te (QCs, determina- TFs, LMCs, tion, ESOPs CBAs)PLACES OF SMEs, Japan, Europe, SocialistPRACTICE developing USA Germany, countries,S countries USA state enterprises
  10. 10. Basic Model of Social Partnership
  11. 11. Social Partnership Mechanismsin the Philippines1. Suggestion scheme, meeting, task force2. Consultation- OSH Committee, SDWT, QC, LMC3. Collective Bargaining, Collective Negotiation4. Gain-sharing- Employee Coop & Enterprise, Profit Sharing, ESOP5. Work Council, Employee representation in the governing board
  12. 12. worker participation in decision makingPractices Filipino Foreign w/ Union- Non- -owned -owned Foreign ized union equity izedNumber surveyed 26.774 1,200 2,180 3,291 20,86 31. Safety & health committee 44.5% 69.1% 58.1% 61.1% 44.7%2. Suggestion schemes 38.0 47.6 50.0 41.9 38.83. Quality & productivity circles 29.4 36.6 32.3 40.2 28.44. Productivity improvement 28.4 35.7 37.0 40.1 27.9committee5. Grievance machinery 24.6 36.2 36.7 40.1 27.96. L-M council/committee 18.4 24.2 35.9 54.4 14.97. Joint committee & task force 16.9 32.2 25.5 26.0 17.2
  13. 13. LMC at Ebara Benguet, Inc Fostering principles of social partnership and strategic management (dubbed as “Partnership for Quality, Productivity and Profitability” or PQP2). (Jose Gatchalian)
  14. 14. LMC at Ebara Benguet, Inc- Stages of ImplementationI – Series of dialogues between consultants, management and laborII – Strategic planning for quality & organizing the quality steering committeeIII – Promotion of PQP2 company-wide, with group training on problem-solving techniques, teamwork, principled CBA negotiations, etc. and activation of the quality improvement teamsIV – Evaluation.
  15. 15. LMC at Ebara Benguet, Inc- Evaluation of Results Measured production volume, rejection rate by weight, and profit and loss statement at period intervals Quantitative results showed that production volume significantly increased, rejection rates by weight drastically reduced, bottom line profit reflected positive yield, while actual loss were reduced substantially.
  16. 16. ESOP effects on employeecommitment and productivity Employees in 4 domestic firms exhibited higher organizational commitment and greater productivity levels (Aganon 1997)
  17. 17. Top Phil. TelecommunicationsCompany Guanzon (2006) assessed the readiness of a top Philippine telecommunications company and 3 of its suppliers to the global standards of Social Accountability 8000. This management –initiated intervention was intended not only to prepare the company for global competition but also to “guarantee the basic rights of workers and to improve their working conditions”.
  18. 18. Top Phil. TelecommunicationsCompany The focus of the study was on compliance with international standards of child labor, forced labor, health and safety, freedom of association and collective bargaining, discrimination, disciplinary practices, working hours, remuneration, and management systems.
  19. 19. Top Phil. TelecommunicationsCompany Guanzon concluded that the Philippine telecommunications company obtained a high level readiness to SA 8000 which was equal to the compliance level of its two multinational suppliers. It has higher readiness achievement compared to its 3rd supplier.
  20. 20. The transformation of industrialrelations at PAL PAL’s adversarial relations with its 3 unions led by the PAL Employees Association resulted to a crippling strike in 1998. This eventually caused PAL’s closure. (Salas-Zsal 2006)
  21. 21. The transformation of industrial relations at PAL PAL’s reopening in September 1998 under State receivership was conditioned on an employer-union partnership which featured the ff:  union-management cooperation  employee stock option program  union representation in the Board in exchange of a 10-year suspension of the collective bargaining process.
  22. 22. The transformation of industrialrelations at PAL Today, after less than 9 years of employer-union partnership, PAL is in the pink of health and has recently been freed from receivership status.
  23. 23. Labor-Management Cooperation Practices in Unionized Workplaces a. Central Azucarera Don Pedro, Inc., Nasugbu, Batangas b. Mabuhay Vinyl Corporation, Iligan City c. Energizer Philippines, Mandaue, Cebu d. Del Monte Philippines, Inc., Bukidnon
  24. 24. Employee CB Employee Co- EE Consultation management Rep.Compa QC LMC CBA Coop. Enter ESOP ERGB ny prise1.CAD QC/ LMC CBA ESOPPI OSHC2.Ma OSHC IPC CBA Coopbuhay3.Ener TPM- ERC CBAgizer AC4.Del LMC CBAMonte
  25. 25. Central AzucareraDon Pedro, Inc. (CADPI) Started with very autocratic leadership, labor-management relationship was unfriendly, adversarial and legalistic. Batangas Labor Union (BLU) organized in 1954 which led to two crippling strikes in 1959 and 1971 due to bargaining deadlocks. Helicopters brought food to non-striking workers while strikers cut the drinking water to the factory site.
  26. 26. CADPI The scope of LMC at CADPI was expanded to low-cost subdivision and housing project, skills training, LMC Day celebration every May 1st, giving out Model Workers awards, strategic planning, job evaluation and adjustment of allowances, giving service awards for retirees, etc.
  27. 27. CADPI one of the best model of employer-labor social partnership. efficient sugar milling and refining plants and one of the most profitable in the industry 2007 DOLE-NCMB and PHILAMCOP Hall of Fame award, 2000 Hall of Fame Pro-Active Achievement Award of the DTI Center for Industrial Competitiveness, 1999 ECOP Kapatid Award and the 1997 Sikap-Gawa Industrial Peace award of the Bishop-Businessmen’s Conference on Human Development on LMC category.
  28. 28. Mabuhay Vinyl Corporation LMC is called Industrial Peace Council (IPC) after it became part of the company’s strategic plans. Mabuhay IPC’s basic missions: industrial peace; people empowerment and continuous improvement; and address environment and community issues and concerns.
  29. 29. Mabuhay Vinyl Corporation Team building and collective bargaining negotiations and implementation are part of IPC’s agenda dissemination of IPC activities are coursed through the company newsletter (MVC Pipeline), IPC bulletin boards, and various company meetings- planning, regular, department/section, and “magtanong sa pangulo”
  30. 30. Energizer Philippines LMC started in 2000 with pro-active leadership: team-based culture; open communications to foster trust and harmony; harmonious labor-management relations; and union commitment to company programs. The Employee Relations Committee (ERC) reversed the adversarial labor management relationship: a strike in 1988; bargaining deadlocks in 1994 and 1997; and a string of grievance cases. Plant productivity of the company was on the downtrend during these periods.
  31. 31. Energizer Philippines No strikes and no lock-outs Zero grievance records since 2000 5 days collective bargaining negotiations for the 2005-2008 CBA No cases in outside venues The benefits of industrial peace based on savings on work hours are: P500,000 for speedy CB negotiations; P3 million for absence of labor disputes; and P5 to P6 million for zero strike.
  32. 32. Del Monte Philippines LMC started as a CBA provision in 1983 but did not become active. In 2001, the LMC was re-launched with the opening of the plantation-wide sportsfest. It started as communication mechanisms and activities revolved around sports, socials, safety and grievance handling.
  33. 33. Del Monte Philippines Now, livelihood and income generating projects are concerns of LMC Involved in community relations CSR projects like tree planting, Pasko sa Baryo (“Christmas at the Village”) program, and Pineapple Pre-school Learning Center.
  34. 34. Practices in Non-Manufacturing Unionized Workplaces  Bank of Philippine Islands, Makati City  GMA Network, Inc., Quezon City  Manila Electric Company, Pasig City  University of the Philippines, Quezon City  SM Shoe Mart, Manila
  35. 35. Employee CB Employee Co- EE Consultation management Rep.Com QC LMC CBA Coop Enter ESO ERGBpany prise P5. BPI OSHC LMC CBA6.GMA OSHC LMC CBA Coop7.Mera OSHC LMC CBA Coop Mesala ESOP lco , etc8. UP Com- Coun- CNA Coop PF BOR mittee cil Reps9. SM OSHC CBA
  36. 36. Bank of Philippine Islands Partners with 24 rank-and-file unions nationwide Mechanisms used for industrial peace and harmony- collective bargaining, labor management conferences, open communications /open door policy, and training program on value-based labor relations.
  37. 37. GMA Network, Inc. 3 decades of employer and union partnership operating on mutual trust and cooperation
  38. 38. GMA Network, Inc. Jointly decides and consults through: collective bargaining; organization of company events; the GMA 7 Employees Multipurpose Cooperative; the GMA Kapuso Foundation; communications mechanisms; occupational health and safety committees; and grievance machinery.
  39. 39. Manila Electric Company Transformed hostile and legalistic union- management relations to an HRD-focused employer-union partnership MERALCO has high regard for the employees’ primary role in boosting the company’s productivity. Partners with the academe, notably UP and AIM
  40. 40. Manila Electric Company MERALCO has reinforced employer-union cooperation in other HR productivity interventions such as the LMC, pension fund, voluntary separation program, employees’ savings and loan association, multi-purpose cooperative, health maintenance plan, mutual benefit association, livelihood training for employees’ dependents, etc.
  41. 41. University of the PhilippinesGood practices in social partnership in governance namely: 1) voluntary austerity program; 2) provident fund managed by the employees; and 3) democratic representation at the Board of Regents, the University’s highest policy making body.
  42. 42. University of the PhilippinesThe 11 regents include the University President as Co-Chairperson: 7 seats are allotted to the major stakeholders- one seat each for faculty, students, staff (employees) and the alumni association President; 3 seats for professionals (2 should be alumni); 3 seats for government
  43. 43. Practices in Unionized Workplaces in the Regions  Holcim Philippines, Inc., La Union  Holcim Philippines, Inc., Lugait, Misamis Oriental  Philippine Associated Smelting Corporation, Isabel, Leyte  Coca Cola Bottlers Phils.-Ilocos Plant, Ilocos Norte
  44. 44. Employee CB Employee Co- EE Consultation management Rep.Com QC LMC CBA Coop Enter ESO ERGBpany prise P10. OSHC LMC CBAHolcim11. OSHC LMC CBAPasar C12. OSHC WIP CBACoke
  45. 45. Holcim Philippines, Inc. LMC has developed good relations with the local community, and improved labor- management climate. Good labor-management relations impacts directly on profitability, productivity, job security and quality of life. LMC was institutionalized in the CBA on May 11, 1957
  46. 46. Philippine Associated Smeltingand Refining CorporationThe successful social partnership brought improvements in the workplace- recreational facilities, sports programs and regular bus services for employees and dependents, labor education initiated by the union, safety and health programs (P13 million), scholarship for dependents, skills and competency-based training programs (P15.5 million), medical services with a hospital, etc.
  47. 47. Practices in Non-Unionized Workplaces  Ford Motor Company Philippines, Sta. Rosa, Laguna  Moog Control Corp., Baguio City  SPI Technologies, Inc., Paranaque City  United Laboratories, Inc., Mandaluyong City
  48. 48. Employee CB Employee Co- EE Consultation management Rep.Com QC LMC CBA Coop Enter ESO ERGBpany prise P13. PP / OBMFord SMT14. OSHC ERC Coop PSMoog15. SPI OSHC EC Coop16. OSHC EC UBF PSUnilab
  49. 49. Ford Motor Company Philippines Social partnership in Ford is inculcated through shared corporate values and open door policy in communications. Conflicts are resolved through various communications mechanisms such as the corrective action process, people development committee, HR- department meetings, manufacturing functional meetings, lunch with HR Director, Usapang Ford, SMT steering committee and partners’ pillars.
  50. 50. Moog Controls Corporation No time clocks but the employees report accurately their performances. Profit sharing program that returns a significant part of the company’s earnings to the employees. Employee relations committees (ERCs), continuous peer training and performance reviews, performance and conduct counseling and disciplining, grievance machinery, employee volunteer welfare committees and an employee cooperative.
  51. 51. United Laboratories, Inc. Employees Council (EC) was set up in 1959 to serve as the voice of the employees and a partner of management in providing for the needs and improving the quality of life of employees. Profit sharing program, etc.
  52. 52. Challenges to the IR Actors The country has numerous successful practices and experiences on employer- labor social partnership. There is no theoretical guidance on which combination of interventions in social partnership may prove effective in achieving organizational productivity.
  53. 53. Challenges to the IR Actors In the meantime, the problems of enterprises and labor in preserving and expanding workplaces and jobs in the country need daringness in planning and implementing employer-labor partnership interventions.
  54. 54. Benefits from social partnership Increased productivity; Industrial peace- no strike and no lock out, minimal to zero grievances, minimal union- initiated labor cases; speedy collective bargaining negotiations, etc.; Better communications between labor and management; and Above industry compensation and benefits.
  55. 55. Policy Recommendations1. While social employer-labor partnership is fast being implemented in large Philippine enterprises as shown in this paper, there is need to cascade these good practices to the smaller firms that employs the bigger bulk of the labor force.
  56. 56. Policy Recommendations2. Employer initiatives in promoting good practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR) should be supported not only by their employees but also by other stakeholders. This was illustrated in both unionized and non-unionized establishments shown in this paper. Another example of this initiative is SM’s “Big Brother, Small Brother” partnership in job preservation and job creation.
  57. 57. Policy Recommendations3. The various social accords among employers, trade unions and government like the “Social Accord for Industrial Peace and Stability” signed in October 4, 2004 by ECOP, trade union federations (TUCP, FFW and TUPAS) and DOLE should be transformed into concrete activities, projects and programs and not limited to contract signing and publicity events.
  58. 58. Policy Recommendations4. The operations of the Tripartite Industrial Peace Council (TIPC) should be expanded to provincial, city, municipality, barangay and industry levels.
  59. 59. Policy Recommendations5. Trade union organizing and collective bargaining through RA No. 9481 should be supported by the social partners. As illustrated in the case studies, employers and trade union cooperation contributes to productivity and decent work. For those who opted for non-unionized form of social partnership, alternative interventions featured in this paper has resulted to the same outcomes- industry productivity, labor empowerment and improved working conditions.
  60. 60. Policy Recommendations6. The campaign of the IR actors for patronage of locally-made products following Philippine quality standards and the campaign against smuggling are effective mechanisms for job creation and job preservation. This is another area ripe for social partnership interventions.
  61. 61. Policy Recommendations7. The voluntary adoption of ESOP in Philippine enterprises can be refiled at the Philippine Congress now that the success of ESOP’s experiences in the country especially on PAL has shown very positive results.
  62. 62. Policy Recommendations8. Employee representation in the governing boards of government corporations like those at the University of the Philippines and tripartite representation at the GSIS, SSS, ECC, OWWA, etc. should be expanded to other state corporations, and possibly encouraged for adoption in private enterprises.
  63. 63. Policy Recommendations10. Voluntary compliance with the Philippine Quality Award Act (under RA No. 9013) should be given more incentives by the social actors. The PQA standards should be divided into various categories similar to the ISO standards (ISO 9000, 14,000, etc.). The social actors especially the civil society should campaign for patronage of PQA complaint enterprises.
  64. 64. Policy Recommendations10. Philippine retailers like SM should also champion compliance to all Philippine standards like DO No. 57-04 for labor standards, PS standards of DTI for electrical products, BFAD standards for food and drugs, ban in selling pirated DVDs and CDs of local films and music and other smuggled products.
  65. 65. Policy Recommendations11. The Securities and Exchange Commission should encourage elected employee representatives as possible occupants of the 2 seats allotted for independent directors for publicly- listed firms.
  66. 66. Policy Recommendations12. Social partnership should also be expanded among principals and subcontactors and suppliers. Big enterprises should extend educational and technical assistance to subcontractors and suppliers to enable them to comply with local and international quality standards in exchange for continuous patronage of their products and services.
  67. 67. In closing, Pope John XXIII(1961) “…the relations between the employers and directors on the one hand, and the employees on the other, be marked by appreciation, understanding, a loyal and active cooperation, and devotion to an undertaking common to both, the work is considered and effected by all members of the enterprise, not merely as a source of income, but also as the fulfillment of a duty and the rendering of a service. This also means that the workers may have their say in and make their contribution

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